PSYB32H3 Lecture Notes - Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Social Learning Theory, Ecological Systems Theory

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Published on 26 Sep 2011
School
UTSC
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB32H3
PSYB20 Lecture 2
September 21, 2011
Behaviourism
-Watson wanted to create a truly objective form of scientific psychology
-Skinner thought the frequency of behaviour could be increased by
associating it with various outcomes (reinforcer)
-or punishment to decrease the likelihood of behaviour
-social learning theory introduced by Bandura
-critical notion of learning was that people could learn simply by observing;
observational learning
-children are selective with what they learn through observation because of
socio-cognitive variables
-practical applications like behaviour modification used to increase desirable
behaviours and vice versa
-works well
-effective in dealing with severe development problems like hyperactivity; as
well as everyday things like phobias
-biological factors dont play that big a role in social learning theory; negative
evaluation
Cognitive Theories
-Piaget very influential
-viewed children as "constructivists": curious active explorers who responded
to their environment according to how they view the world
-thought children constructed their own reality and their own worlds
-understanding the world on their own terms
-a sequence of stages of how they understand the world; qualitatively
different ways of understanding
-discontinuous stage theory
-referred to cognitive psychology to help explain how children understand
their world
-input --> output; looking for a behavioural response
-computer- like methodology is used; flow charts of the steps one goes
through in terms of solving tasks
-individual processes; perception, attention, memory, categorization, problem
solving; how these processes change as a function of age; a continuous
approach of understanding the development
-information- processing theory; developmental cognitive neuroscience --> all
variables brought into terms with child development
-analyzing brain activity helps because you can see how as the brain grows
how the development changes
-learning; cognitive processes, are substantiated into how the brain operates
-we can assess the nature of these changes with brain analyzation
-brain is highly plastic when young
-brain is open to regrowth and taking over areas if there is damage
-remains able to re-organize throughout life
Ethological & Evolutionary Theories
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-concerned with the adaptive and survival aspects of development
-imprinting: early following behaviour; led to the idea of critical periods
-set time periods in early life during which the child must receive the proper
stimulation to enable them to develop
-biologically prepared to acquire certain adaptive behaviours; if they dont
receive the proper stimulation in that time period, they wont learn the
behaviour
-humans have more of a sensitive period; weaker equivalent of a critical
period
-doesnt have as strict time boundaries of a critical period; behaviour can still
be learned outside the time period but it is harder
-like learning language; easier when younger
-have a set of behaviours that are inherent; like crying to get food and
attention
-adaptive value of cognitive, social, and value emotional competencies
Vygotsky & Sociocultural Theory
-child studies have become increasingly aware of the importance of social
interaction
-most research has looked at culture specific frameworks
-how does one's cultures beliefs, customs, etc play a role in development &
how are they transmitted to the next generation
-believes development is extremely dependent on social interactions
-communication between children and adults can become a part of the
internal dialogue children experience when they think about interactions
-he was convinced that children were active in their construction of socially
mediated processes, not their own world or reality
-children in different cultures had numerous different strengths, based on the
role of their cultural experiences
-he neglected the biological role in development
-emphasis on social transference of development
Bronfenbrenner & Ecological Systems Theory
-contextual influences on development
-child is developing within a complex system of relationships that are affected
by numerous layers from the surrounding environment
-envisioned that the environment consisted of nested layers that formed the
complex functioning system
-microsystem --> inner most layer of environment; two person dyads;
interactions in the immediate surroundings
-mesosystem --> connections between the home, neighbourhood, etc;
academic progress in school, etc; parents
-exosystem --> social settings that dont include children but still affect them;
formal institutions, parents work place, etc; things like flexible work
schedules, to be able to spend time with children, etc; thus has an indirect
impact on the child; parental social networks can interfere with parenting
styles, etc
-macrosystem --> cultural values, laws, customs, norms, etc; ability to meet
the childs needs affect the rest of the layers; like high quality daycare,
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Document Summary

Watson wanted to create a truly objective form of scientific psychology. Skinner thought the frequency of behaviour could be increased by associating it with various outcomes (reinforcer) Or punishment to decrease the likelihood of behaviour. Critical notion of learning was that people could learn simply by observing; observational learning. Children are selective with what they learn through observation because of socio-cognitive variables. Practical applications like behaviour modification used to increase desirable behaviours and vice versa. Effective in dealing with severe development problems like hyperactivity; as well as everyday things like phobias. Biological factors dont play that big a role in social learning theory; negative evaluation. Viewed children as constructivists: curious active explorers who responded to their environment according to how they view the world. Thought children constructed their own reality and their own worlds. A sequence of stages of how they understand the world; qualitatively different ways of understanding.

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