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Lecture 1

PSYB32H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Canadian Mental Health Association, Mutual Recognition Agreement, Pope Innocent Viii

Course Code
Konstantine Zakzanis

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Chapter 1
Itrodutio: Defiitioal ad Historial Cosideratios, ad Caada’s Metal Health “yste
Psychopathology the field Concerned with the nature and development of abnormal behaviour,
thoughts and feelings
- The subject offers few hard and fast answers
- When studying abnormal psychology we need to stay objective when studying
- However the subject matter is personal and powerfully affecting making objectivity difficult
but necessary
- Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-Fifth Edition DSM-5 assist in making
diagnostic decisions
- Clara Hughes along with corporations and individuals making a difference in abnormal
- Mental Health Commission of Canada and individuals across our nation Canada has its first
comprehensive Mental Health Strategy
- National suicide prevention strategy public support for a nonpartisan motion put forth in
Oct. 2011 by liberal leader Bob Rae
What is Abnormal Behaviour?
Abnormal Behaviour includes such characteristics as statistical infrequency, violations of norms,
personal distress, disability or dysfunction and unexpectedness
Statistical Infrequency:
- The normal curve/bell-shaped curve places the majority of people in the
middle as far as any particular characteristic is concerned few people in
each extreme
- Number of people by Intelligence quotient
- Individual with IQ <70 intellectual functioning considered sufficiently subnormal -- designated
as mental retardation
- Statistical component gives little guidance in determining which infrequent behaviours
psychopathologists should study
Violations of Norms:
- Threatens or makes anxious those observing the certain behaviour
- Various forms of unusual behaviour can be tolerated depending on culture
- Criminals and Prostitutes violate social norms but are not associated with abnormal psychology
Personal Suffering:
- Behaviour is abnormal if it causes distress and torment in the person experiencing it
- Anxiety disorders and depression
- Unlike psychopathy which does not involve distress treats others cold-heartedly and
continuously violates the law without experiencing any guilt, remorse or anxiety
- Unlike hunger and pain of childbirth
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Disability or Dysfunction:
- Impairment in some important area of life work or relationship because of abnormality
- Substance-use disorder social and occupational disability
- If no disability can go about life without it impairing you
- Phobia prevents someone from doing something because of the intense fear (e.g. of flying in a
- Disability applies to some not all disorders e.g. transvestism is not included cross-dressing for
sexual pleasure) mental disorder not disability
- Distress and disability become abnormal when they are unexpected responses to the
environmental stressors
- Someone who is rich only worries about money being lost UNEXPECTED
- Homeless man worried about where to get next meal Expected
The Mental Health Professions:
Goering, Wasylenki and Durbin ~about 3,600 practising psychiatrists, 13,000 psychologists and
psychological associates and 11,000 nurses specialize in the mental health area in Canada
Thousands of social workers in mental health field and major portion of primary mental health care
are general practitioners (GP)
Psychiatrists medical doctors clinical autonomy > self-employed chose who they want to care for
Clinicians the various professionals authorized to provide psychological services
Clinical Psychologist Requires:
- PhD (heavy emphasis on laboratory work, research design and statistics, and the empirically based
study of human and animal behaviour) research degree that requires an essay on a specialized topic
BASED ON the Scientist-practitioner model
Psy.D. Degree 4-7 years of graduate study less emphasis on research and more on clinical training
flexible and social responsible thinking practitioner deriving skills from core knowledge in scientific
BASED ON the Scholar-practitioner model
- Psychologist may either have a doctoral (Psychologist) - or aster’s (Psychological associates)-
level degree in Canada
- A mutual recognition agreement was signed to recognize professional psychologists all over
Canada and this requires a person to obtain 5 core abilities:
1) Interpersonal relationships (social)
2) Assessment and evaluation (including diagnosis)
3) Intervention and consultation
4) Research
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5) Ethics and standards
PhD and Clinical psychologists require the same BUT clinical psychologists need to learn assessment
and diagnosis of mental disorders and practice: Psychotherapy a primarily verbal means of helping
troubled individuals change their thoughts, feelings, and behaviour to reduce distress and attain
satisfaction with life.
Psychiatrist MD degree and postgraduate training (residency) supervision in practice of diagnosis
and psychotherapy can continue functioning as Physicians giving physical examinations, diagnosing
medical problems etc.
- Prescribing:
Psychoactive drugs chemical compound that can influence how people feel and think
Psychoanalyst received specialized training at the psychoanalytic institute - 10 years of graduate work
Social Worker obtains M.S.W (masters of social work) degree
- Counselling psychologists are somewhat similar to graduate training in clinical psychology but
usually have less emphasis on research and more sever forms of psychopathology
Difference between counselling and clinical psychology
- 22 accredited clinical psychology program
- 4 counselling psychology program
- Counselling tend to be terminal oly aster’s degree ad o dotoral progress
- Clinical tend to have large proportion of their faculty members registered as clinical
Prescriptive authority opposed by psychiatrists and psychologists protect clients from adverse side
effects and drug interactions?
History of Psychopathology
Early Demonology
Demonology the principle that an evil being, such as the devil, may dwell within a person and control
his or her mind and body
- Possession of a person by a bad spirit
Exorcism the casting out of evil spirits by ritualistic chanting or torture
- make body so uncomfortable to make demon uncomfortable and leave
Trepanning the making of a surgical opening in a living skull by some instrument
- Stone age or Neolithic cave dwellers treating epilepsy, headaches and psychological disorders
demons within the cranium which needed a hole to escape
Hippocrates (ca.460-377) regarded as the father of modern medicine
- Separated medicine from religion, magic and superstition and illnesses has natural causes
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