LEC02: Current Paradigms and the Role of Cultural Factors

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27 Sep 2011
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PSYB32: Current Paradigms and the Role of Cultural Factors
!
The Role of Paradigms
- conceptual framework or approach within which a scientist works
Biological Paradigm
- caused by disturbed biological processes
- biological clinician looks for a biological marker
- behavioural genetics: study of individual difference in behaviour
that are attributable in part to differences in genetic make up (DNA) !
genotype vs. phenotype
genotype: the total genetic make up of and individual
consisting of inherited genes on which are unobservable
phenotype: the observable behavioural characteristics of a
person
- family method: used to study a genetic predisposition among
members of a family because the average number of genes shared by
two blood relatives is known
- twin method:
monozygotic (MX) twins ! identical twins, share 100%
genetic make up
dizygotic (DZ) ! not identical
- adoptees method: (environmental factor)
the study of when the twins are adopted and reared apart
another way of studying what the influence of our
environment might cause
concordant/disconcordant: set of twins have/don’t have same
illness
BIOLOGICAL PARADIGM BIOCHEMISTRY
- neurotransmission
chemical molecules are activated when an electrical current
runs through or freeze them, the molecules that move from
one neuro to another is called neuro transmitters
- reuptake
BIOLOGICAL PARADIGM
STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF THE HUMAN BRAIN
- cortical structure is on the exterior part of the brain: frontal lobe,
parietal lobe, occipital lobe, temporal lobe higher cognitive function
attention thinking language
- subcortical structures is the interior part of he brain, they are much
more complex (respon for movement, basic processes, sensation,
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hunger, perception, physical express of emotion) also contribute to
higher order cognition ! have phobia ! heart begins to race, heavy
breathing, perspiration
STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF THE HUMAN BRAIN
- Frontal lobes (respon for: inhibited to actions, judgment, socially
responsible, following morals, planning, problem solving, keeping
organized, awareness!Anosognosia: unawareness of illness, memory
right: retrieval (injured: manic)
left: verbal speech, learning (taking in), (injured: depression)
- temporal lobes
hippocampus takes info and places it somewhere in the cortex
and then the left frontal lobe retrieves it
language, memory,
left: verbal may not understand speech, but can
comprehension sounds
right: nonverbal
- parietal
visual perceptual, perception, construction
left: difficulty with the conceptualization of movement
right: (impaired: visual neglect)
- occipital lobes
vision
VIDEO CLIPS
- Pet Scan: Wisconsin card task
BIOLOGICAL PARADIGM APPROACHED
- anxiolytics (for anxiety disorders, OCD, Alzheimer’s)
benzodiazepines
- antidepressants (depression, works with eating disorders ! surfaces
psychological state, traumatic brain injury, substance abuse, OCD,
personality disorders)
- antipsychotics (schizophrenia, depressive disorder,
- psycho-stimulants (ADHD, Alzehimer’s)
PSYCHOANALYTIC PARADIGM
- father was Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
- developed structure of the mind, “unconscious conflicts”
ID
o pleasure principle (basic urges, pleasurable needs)
o primary process thinking (imaginations)
Ego
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