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PSYB32H3 (600)
Lecture

PSYB32H3 Lecture Notes - Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Ecological Systems Theory, Jean Piaget


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB32H3
Professor
Mark Schmuckler

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Psyb20-lec 2
Theories of child development learning theory
-psychology needs to be concerned with detectably observable events
-behaviorism
-watsons goal was to create a truly objective science psychology
-he was inspired by Pavlovs psychology of classical conditioning
-classical conditioning underlined the behavior of the child
-child behavior could be molded by response associations
-also skinner’s operant behavior. The frequency of behavior could be increased by associating it with
various outcomes (reinforcers)
-could decrease a behavior by the outcome as well (punishment)
-social learning theories have emerged- produced by albert bandura
-critical notion of learning was that children could learn simply by observing other situations
-he spoke about modeling, you watch someone doing a certain behavior and you do that behavior. Ex:
baby clapping his hands sees mom clapping his hands
-sociocognitive theory: revised theory, children are selective in what they imitate.
-they develop personal standards for behavior, ones characteristics are gonna influence them to
succeed
-efficacy of learning theories have had a major impact on aspects of development
-through various practices such as behavior modification
-effective with dealing with mental problems such as anger, language, common day things as well such
as smoking
-plays down the importance of biological factors, they don’t play that big of a role in learning theories
-learning theories actually include a narrow view of the environment-environment are like immediate
reinforcements
-underestimated the children’s contribution to development
-theories don’t give children a whole lot of say in their development process
Theories of child development cognitive theories
-jean piaget was the main man of cognitive developmental theory
-he was concerned of thinking reasoning and intelligence
-he didn’t believe that development was due to reinforcement
-he viewed children as explorers that responded to their environment they were constructive
-both biological factors and experience influenced their dev
-the children constructed their own world
-this all depended on the level of cognitive ability the child had
-children went through stages to determine how they determined the world and solved problem
(discontinuous stage theory)
-understanding psychologists turned to cognition
-information processing theory: information is essentially brought into the system into the individual
through senses (input) and things are done to it until it is output
-IPpsychologists use flow charts and computer methodology
-talk about individual processes, such as perception memory…. How do these process change as a
function of age
-strength of info processing can talk about different steps children go through when understanding
information
-informtation processing falls shorts, they analyze specifics but don’t put it back together and analyze it
all together

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-developmental cognitive neuroscience: brings together diff sciences to bring forth changes in
the brain due to children cognitive uses
-measures brain activity as children are performing cognitive task, how is the brain involved
-how is the brain related to changes in cognition
-various methods you can asses the nature of the change of the brain in relation with the cognitive uses
of a child. All done by brain analyzation.
-the brain remains plastic throughout one’s life span
Theories of child development-ethological and evolutionary theory
-ethology is concerned with the adaptive and survival aspects of dev
-timbergen and Lorenz, watched animal species in natural habitat and many of the behaviors of the
species had disctinct survival value
-they produced behavior that allowed for survival
-imprinting: ensures survival, stay near parents
-critical period: set time period where the imprinting occurs
-there is a period within the organisms body where they are required to obtain adaptive behaviors
-if its not within that time they wont produce the behaviors
-for human infants critical period its more sensitive period that there is a time that is biological optimal
for certain
-optimal development occurs during sensitive period, can occur later but its better during the sensitive
period ex: language, children learn language better during the sensitive period
-the human infant has a set of behaviors that promote its survival, such as crying smiling, trying to
engage moms attention, they encourage care giving to keep mom near by
-emotion is critical in human behavior duh
-evolutionary dev psychology: understand the adaptive value of species cognitive competencies
-evolutionary dev specialists studied what plays a role in the survival value
-it is not just concerned with genetic and biological basis
-how do children learn and whats the goal
Theories of child dev-vygotsky and brofenbrenner
-we have understood the importance of cultural dev
-cultural comparisons are to see if dev applies to all children or are they specific to certain cultures
-vygotsky-sociocultural theory
-one of the key aspects of dev have to do with social interaction-cooperative dialects where more
knowledgeable members will tutor or teach less knowledgeable
-they less knowledgeable will learn the right ways from the more knowledgeable
-he was concerned with cognitive dev how do they understand the world
-he was convinced children were active like piaget
-he said children weren;t constructing their own reality, they were learning for more socially mediated
processes
-they had their own unique strengths that played a role on culture and social experience
-vygotsky neglected the biological concept
-he gave a lot of emphasis on how children learning socially, but less on how children shape their own
dev, whne children play a great part in shaping their own developemtn
-brofenbrenner
-ecological systems theory: compex systems of relationships
-the environment consisted of interrelated layers that formed complex system and the layers behan in
the home and had an influence on the childs dev.
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