Class Notes (1,100,000)
CA (650,000)
UTSC (30,000)
Psychology (9,000)
PSYB32H3 (600)


Course Code
Mark Schmuckler

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Chapter 1
Child development: identifies and describes changes in the child’s cognitive, emotional, motor
and social capacities and behaviours from the moment of conception through the period of
Maturation: genetically determined process of growth that unfolds naturally over a period of
time. Arnold Gesell believed in this
John B. Watson placed his emphasis strictly on the environment. Assumed that biological factors
placed no restriction on the ways that the environment can shape the course of a child’s
Some psychologists view development as a continuous process whereby each new event builds
on earlier experience. There is a smooth and gradual accumulation of abilities
Some view it as a discontinuous development. It is seen as a series of discrete steps or stages in
which behaviours get reorganized into a qualitatively new set of behaviours
Interactionist viewpoint: stressing the dual role of individual and contextual factors
Sleeper effect: cope with the problems with initially, but exhibit problems later on in life
Theories have two functions: they help organize and integrate existing info into coherent and
interesting accounts of how children develop. They also generate testable hypotheses or
predictions about children`s behaviour
Good theory allows one to make sense of a greater number of observations, based on the
fewest number of premises and can be then used to formulate settings for the collection of new
Freud was interested in emotions and personalities, piaget was interested in thinking. Both had
structural-organismic perspectives. They both believed that the child when through
discontinuous stages over the course of development
Psychodynamic theory: emphasizes how the experiences of early childhood shape the
development of adult personality
The way in which the child negotiates the oral, anal and phallic stages has a profound impact on
emotional development and the adult personality. Eg. Those that had an unsatisfied need for
oral stimulation may be more likely to smoke
In Erik Erikson’s psychosocial theory characterizes by the personal and social tasks that the
individual must accomplish as well as the risks the individual confronts if she fails to process
through the stages successfully
Piagetian theory: principle of organization reflects the view that human intellectual
development is a biologically organized process. Used the principle of adaptation to describe the
process by which intellectual change occurs as the human mind becomes increasingly adapted
to the world
Behaviourism emphasizes the role of experience, and it’s a gradual, continuous view
Cognitive social learning theory: children learn through observing and imitating others

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Four processes govern how well a child will learn by observing another person
Child must attend to a model’s behaviour
The child must retain the observed behaviours in memory
The child must have the capacity, physically and intellectually to reproduce the
observed behaviours
The child must be motivated or have a reason to reproduce the behaviour
Information-processing approaches focus on the flow of info through the cognitive system,
beginning with an input/stimulus and ending with an output/response
Dynamic systems theory: individuals develop and function within systems, it studies the
relationships among individuals and systems and the processes by which these relationships
The word dynamic underscores the constant interaction and mutual influence of the elements in
the system
LOOK AT TABLE 1.2; pg 14
Sociocultural theory: development is seen as evolving out of children’s interactions with more
skilled others in their social environment. Eg. A tutor teachers helps the child to read, write, add
and subtract. Etc.
Ecological theory: stresses the importance of understanding not only the relationships between
the organism and various environmental systems but also the relations among such systems
Microsystem: the context in which child live and interact with the people and institutions closest
to them. Eg. Parents, peers and school
Mesosystem: interrelations that occur among the components of the microsystem with which
the child interacts
Exosystem: collection of settings that impinge on a child’s development but in which the child
doesn’t play a direct role. Eg. Parents work may affect the child’s life if it requires the parent to
travel or work late in the night
Macrosystem: system that surrounds the above systems and represents the values, ideologies
and laws of the society or culture
Chronosystem: time-based dimension that can alter the operation of all other levels, from micro
to macrosystem
Lifespan perspective: incorporates historical factors that may influence psychological
Ethological theory: behaviour must be viewed and understood as occurring in a particular
context and as having adaptive or survival value. Basic method of study is the observation of
children in their natural surroundings, and their goals are to develop detailed descriptions and
classifications of behaviour. Eg. Child cried to catches parent’s attention when it is hungry
Evolutionary psychology have a major impact on the study of cognition and cognitive
Look at table 1.3

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Converging operations: variety of research techniques are used to investigate or converge upon
a particular experimental or research result
Correlational studies describe patterns and paths as they naturally occur
Ecological validity: the degree to which a research study accurately represents events and
process that occur in the natural world
Observer bias: tendency of researchers to be influenced in their judgments by their knowledge of
the hypotheses guiding the research
One advantage of longitudinal study is it allows one to study “intergenerational continuity and the
transfer of psychosocial risk”
Sequential method: combines features of both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. Start off
like a cross-sectional and collect children with different ages
The ovum is the largest human cell and it about 90 000 times as heavy as the sperm that
penetrates it
Autosomes: the 22 paired non-sex chromosomes
Each nucleotide contains a nitrogen base, simple sugar and phosphate group
Principle of segregation: each inherited trait comes from one’s parent as a separate unit
Principle of independent assortment: inheritance of various traits occurs independently of one
At any given gene’s position on two homologous chromosomes, there can be more than one
form of that gene. The alternative form of genes is called alleles, with one allele coming from
the organism’s mother and the other from the father
Co-dominance: Two traits will combine but not blend
X-linked diseases; the recessive genes in females are expressed much less frequently because
females have two X-chromosomes , have a chance of inheriting a dominant and counteracting
allele on the other X chromosome
Eg. Hemophilia, a disorder in which the blood fails to clot. X-linked recessive characteristics
120 males are conceived for every 100 females and 106 males are born for every 100 females
Modifier genes: exert their influence indirectly, by affecting the expression of still other genes.
Eg. Cataract; a condition in which the lens of the eyes becomes clouded, obscuring vision
Harmful alleles survive in the heterozygous state- the person inherits both the normal and
recessive allele
PKU: disease caused by a recessive allele that fails to produce an enzyme necessary to
metabolize the protein phenylalanine (in milk); if untreated immediately at birth, it damaged the
nervous system and causes mental retardation. Two heterozygous parents have a 1-in-4 chance
of producing an infant who is homozygous for PKU
An allele on chromosome 11 is the cause of sickle cell anemia
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