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Lecture 6

PSYB32 Lecture 6 Notes

Course Code
Konstantine Zakzanis

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Lecture 6
x Nancy
o After turned 18 was depressed
Insomnia (could not sleep no matter what)
flashing memories
Intense phobia of darkness
o After 2 weeks of not having sleep, had suicidal thoughts
o Then 2 weeks later, the thoughts turned into a biological need
o Took 60 sleeping pills
Woke up next morning and entire body was paralyzed
o Not able to control everything in her mind
Devoid of human feelings
o Anti-depressants began to have side effects
o Jumped off a balcony and paralyzed from waist down
o In sunnybrook hospital, had to take 20 pills everyday
After a week, started to sleep again
Suicidal thoughts were reduced by a dramatic extent
o Took more than a year to regain sanity
o In 2003 diagnosed with bipolar disorder (wrong diagnosis for
o Every mental illness can be classified into neurosis or psychosis
x Eating disorders etc
x Can tell that they are sick by behaviour
o Bipolar disorder
Has strong genetic roots
Born bipolar
Biochemicals were not balanced (triggered suicidal
x Luc
o Major depression
Every morning when wake up
Never feels normal without medication
o Has a good life
No reason why should be depressed
Most ppl think that ppl who are depressed have a bad life

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o When 6 years old, felt was different from other kids
out of bed
o When 11, had to take at least one day off of school
o 15 years old
Vision of death, suicide
Trigger: new city, new school, fed up with travelling
Takes a lot of pills in order to commit suicide, but did
nothing to him
o Feels worthless, life not worth anything
Even on medication, feels those feeling on a weekly basis
o Prescribed Prozac for depression
Killed appetite, sex drive, social life (tired all the time)
Made feel mentally better
x Fake better
o Took new medication
Woke up feeling normal
o When started medication, lost passion for painting
So stopped taking medication
If go off medication, in 3 days, come back exactly what
was (because had chronic depression)
When stopped medication, started to be suicidal again
when they take medication
o Stigma
Comes from many different areas
Embedded in person that has depression (so makes them
not sure if they have depression or not or whether are just
a weak person)
x Cognitive biases that Erin Beck talked about
o Negative schematic
Events that happen that shape our personality and they
way we interpret future events
x Fuel interpretation of negative events later in life
x Make up cognitive biases

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o Cognitive biases
Arbitrary inference
x Draw conclusions in the absence of evidence
Selective abstraction
x Conclusion drawn on the basis of only one of
many elements in a situation
x Make an overall sweeping conclusion drawn on
the basis of a single trivial event
Magnification or minimization
x Exaggerate our evaluations of performance in
either direction
x General Characteristics of Mood disorders
x Mood disorders
Disabling distrubances in emotion
Often comorbid with panic attacks, substance abuse,
sexual dysfunction, personality disorders.
x Panic attacks are more common in females with a
mood disorder
x Substance abuse more common in males with
mood disorder
x Sexual dysfunction more common in males with
mood disorder
x Personality disorder more common in females with
a mood disorder
x Depression
o Emotional state marked by great sadness and feelings of
worthlessness and guilt
o Symptoms vary across lifespan.
Younger individuals: more somatic complaints i.e.
headaches, pain.
Elderly: cognitive problems i.e. memory/concentration
x Major depression
o Needs to be 5 symptoms present for a minimum of 2 weeks and
either depressed mood or a loss of interest (anhadonia) and
pleasure must be part of those 5 symptoms
If have 10 symptoms for 10 days, then would not be
depressed according to the DSM
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