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Lecture

Theories of Development - tmp (1).ppt

13 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB32H3
Professor
Mark Schmuckler

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Themes and Theories of Human Development
I. What is a developmental theory?
A. Scientific theory
B. Characteristics of a good theory
1. Parsimony
2. Falsifiability
3. Heuristic Value
II. Questions and controversies in human development
A. Assumptions about human nature
1. Original sin
2. Innate purity
B. Nature versus nurture
C. Activity versus passivity
D. Continuity versus discontinuity
1. Stages of development
2. Qualitative/quantitative
3. Connectedness of development
III. Theories of human development
A. Psychoanalytic theory
1. Components of personality
2. Psychosexual development
B. Learning theory
1. Processes of learning
2. Social learning theory
C. Cognitive developmental theory
D. Ethological theory
E. Ecological theory
1. The importance of the natural environment
2. Environmental layers
What is a theory
What is a theory in general?
A set of concepts or propositions that
describe and explain some aspect of
experience.
What is a scientific theory?
A public pronouncement indicating what a
scientist believes about his or her area
specific area of investigation
What are the characteristics of a good theory?
Parsimony
Concise, yet able to explain a wide
range of phenomena
Falsifiability
Capable of making explicit predictions
Heuristic value
Can be applied to unknown situations
and cases
Question and controversies about
human development
Assumptions about human nature
Innate purity versus original sin
Tabula rasa
Nature versus nurture
Activity versus passivity
Continuity of development
Stages of development
Quantitative versus qualitative change
Quantitative changes in degree
Qualitative changes in kind
Connectedness of development
Similarity versus differences

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Description
Themes and Theories of Human Development I. What is a developmental theory? A. Scientific theory B. Characteristics of a good theory 1. Parsimony 2. Falsifiability 3. Heuristic Value II. Questions and controversies in human development A. Assumptions about human nature 1. Original sin 2. Innate purity B. Nature versus nurture C. Activity versus passivity D. Continuity versus discontinuity 1. Stages of development 2. Qualitative/quantitative 3. Connectedness of development III. Theories of human development A. Psychoanalytic theory 1. Components of personality 2. Psychosexual development B. Learning theory 1. Processes of learning 2. Social learning theory C. Cognitive developmental theory D. Ethological theory E. Ecological theory 1. The importance of the natural environment 2. Environmental layers What is a theory What is a theory in general? •Aset of concepts or propositions that describe and explain some aspect of experience. What is a scientific theory? •Apublic pronouncement indicating what a scientist believes about his or her area specific area of investigation What are the characteristics of a good theory? •Parsimony • Concise, yet able to explain a wide range of phenomena •Falsifiability • Capable of making explicit predictions •Heuristic value • Can be applied to unknown situations and cases Question and controversies about human development • Assumptions about human nature • Tabula rasaty versus original sin • Nature versus nurture • Activity versus passivity • Continuity of development • Quantitative versus qualitative change •Quantitative – changes in degree •Qualitative – changes in kind • Connectedness of development • Similarity versus differences Continuous versus Discontinuous Development Continuous Development t r u a t M A l t e m o r e a e m D I Infant Adult AGE Continuous versus Discontinuous Development Discontinuous Development t r u a t M t l t e m p r e t v m D I Infant Adult AGE Question and controversies about human development • Assumptions about human nature • Tabula rasaty versus original sin • Nature versus nurture • Activity versus passivity • Continuity of development • Quantitative versus qualitative change •Quantitative – changes in degree •Qualitative
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