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Lecture

Chapter 10 Textbook Notes


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB32H3
Professor
Konstantine Zakzanis

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Chapter 10: Mood Disorders
Mood Disorders:
- Mood disorders = disabling disturbance in emotion from sadness of depression to
elation/irritability of mania
- Often associated w/ other psychological problems t panic attacks, substance abuse, sexual
dysfunction, and personality disorders
- Increases with presence of other disorders
Depression
- Depression = emotional state of sadness and feelings of worthlessness and guilt t can also feel
withdrawal from others, lose sleep/appetite/sexual drive and loss of interest/pleasure in
activities
- Depression symptoms/signs vary
- Depression in children = more somatic complains t headache, stomach ache, etc
- Adult depression = more memory loss, distracted
- Cross-cultural differences also t eg. Non-west has more somatic symptoms, west has more
emotional symptoms due to cultures
- Psychologizers = ppl who emphasize psychological aspects of depression t only 15% of
depressed ppl (mostly in Canada and west)
- Recurrent but diminishes with time
- 1/3 of depressed ppl suffer from chronic depression
Mania
- Mania = emotional state/mood of intense unfounded elation w/ hyperactivity, irritability,
talkativeness, flight of ideas, distracted, and impractical plans
Diagnosis of Mood disorders
- Mood disorders divided into: major depression disorder/unipolar depression and bipolar
disorder
Depression Diagnosis
- Major depressive disorder = need to have FIVE symptoms for at least TWO WEEKS t depressed
mood or loss of interest/pleasure must be part of the 5
o Sad, depressed mood most of the day, every day
o Loss of interest/pleasure in activities
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o Feel lethargic = psychomotor retardation, or agitated
o Poor appetite/weight loss, or increase appetite/weight gain
o Lose energy, fatigue
o Negative self-concept/approach/blame, feel worthless and guilt
o v[}vvt slow, indecisive
o Suicidal thoughts
- Research says depression exists on continuum of severity
- Very prevalent = 5-17% - depends on diagnostic criteria used, interviewer training, use of
interviews for collecting info t prevalence ~6.7%
- About 2x more common in women than men, occurs in mid-adolescence
- MDD = 1 of the leading causes of disability-adjusted life years DALYS
- Females more likely to engage in ruminative coping t focus on depressing symptoms
- Brooding = mood pondering
- Depression = recurrent t 80% ppl experience it more than once
- Depression episodes last 3-4 months and avg person has 4 episodes
- In 12% cases, depression is chronic
- Kindling hypothesis = once depression already experienced, takes less stress to occur next time
t either because of autonomy or sensitivity
Bipolar I Disorder
- Bipolar I disorder = episodes of mania or mixed episodes of mania and depression t usually
depression also present
- Diagnosis = manic episode needs presence of irritable/elated mood (not euphoria) and 3 other
symptoms
o Increase activity level, rapid speech/talkativeness, flight of ideas/racing thoughts, less
sleep, inflated self-esteem/powers/ability, distracted, excess pleasure in activities that
have undesirable spending (e.g. reckless spending)
- Less prevalent than MDD t bipolar prevalence = 4.4%
- Avg onset = 20s and occurs equally in men and women but women more likely to experience
depression more
- 50% ppl have recurring bipolar t 4 episodes or more
- Comorbid with substance abuse, marital/job failure, financial difficulties
Bipolar II Disorder
- Mood disorders very heterogeneous = ppl with same disorder can vary a lot t hard to classify
- Bipolar II disorder = episodes of major depression with hypomania = less extreme mania
- Depression with psychotic features (eg delusions) more severe and harder to treat
- WoÁ]Z]}vvZÀuovZ}o]Av}oµ]vvÇ]À]ÇU}v[Àv(o
temporarily, depression worse in morning, less sleep, lose appetite/weight, lethargic/extremely
agitated t use biological treatment
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