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Lecture 4

PSYB32H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Beck Depression Inventory, American Psychiatric Association, Criterion Validity

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Konstantine Zakzanis

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Lecture 4
Research Methods in the Study of Abnormal Psychology
PART 1: Classifications and Diagnosis
‘Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders’ (DSM-5) American Psychiatric Association
DSM-5 Definition of Mental Disorder
- “A syndrome characterized by clinically significant disturbance in individual’s cognition, emotion
regulation, or behavior that reflects a dysfunction in the psychological, biological or developmental
processes underlying mental functioning. Mental disorders are usually associated with significant
distress or disability in social, occupational or other important activities.”
o Over-pathologizing the disorders based on the symptoms that are more common in
individuals than they are in keeping with the disorders themselves
o Excludes:
o An expectable and culturally sanctioned response to a particular event
o Deviant behaviour
o political
o religious fasting due to religious beliefs (not anorexia)
o sexuality being homosexual
o Conflicts that are primarily between the individual and society (unless the deviance or
conflict is a symptom of a dysfunction in the individual)
e.g., hunger strike
Reliability and Validity in Assessment
o Test-retest reliability rule you employed today is going to give you the same rule in the
o IQ test
o Alternate-form reliability create a different version of the test that should give you the
same result
o Inter rater reliability two independent people are looking at the same person and come
up with the same diagnostic conclusion
o Content validity
o Criterion validity
Eg., two measures of depression (Hamilton and Beck Depression
Inventory) if you have a high score on one, you would expect a high
score on the other
Predictive or ecological validity whether or not the test you’re employing has
any relevance to the person’s real world
o Construct validity
You have to look everything that qualitatively and quantitatively would describe
the construct and it all has to fit to be able to have a construct validity
Refers to consistency of measurement
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Two components of reliability:
Sensitivity: agreement regarding the presence of a particular diagnosis (rule in)
Specificity: agreement concerning the absence of a particular diagnosis (rule out)
Reliability is measured by correlation (how closely two variables are related; the stronger the
correlation the better the reliability
Central question to validity:
Does a measure fulfill its intended purpose?
Validity is related to reliability:
Unreliable measures will not have good validity
Types of Evidence
1. Case study
2. Epidemiological research
3. Correlational method
4. Experiment
5. Meta-Analysis
1. Case Study
Case study
Historical and biographical information on a single individual
Providing detailed description
Case study as evidence
Generating hypotheses
Case Study: an example
John Harlow and executive disorder, 1848
In place of the diligent, dependable worker stood a foulmouthed and ill-mannered liar given to
extravagant schemes that were never followed through. "Gage," said his friends, "was no longer
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