Class Notes (921,913)
CA (542,705)
UTSC (32,886)
Psychology (8,010)
PSYB32H3 (620)
Lecture

Chapter 3

7 Pages
216 Views

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB32H3
Professor
Konstantine Zakzanis

This preview shows pages 1-2. Sign up to view the full 7 pages of the document.
1
Chapter 3 - Classification & Diagnosis
The official diagnostic system widely used by mental health professionals is the Diagnostic and Statistical
Manual of Mental Disorders (the DSM), which is currently on its 4th edition (the DSM-IV)
A Brief History of Classification
People realized different illnesses required different treatments
There was a lot of diversity of classification in the end of the 19th century, but no universal classification
system
Development of the WHO and DSM Systems
In 1969, the WHO published a new classification system that was more widely accepted
The WHO classifications were just lists of diagnostic categories; the actual behaviour or symptoms that were
the bases for the diagnoses were not specified
DSM II and the British Glossary of Mental Disorders provided some crucial information, but did not specify
the same symptoms for a given disorder
In 1988, work began to create the DSM IV, and in 1994 it was published
The Diagnostic System of the American Psychiatric Association (DSM-IV and DSM-IV-TR)
Definition of Mental Disorder
The DSM recognizes that WKHWHUP³mental disorder´ is problematic and that no definition adequately
specifies precise boundaries for the concept
A mental disorder, according to the DSM, is conceptualized as a significant behavioural or psychological
syndrome or pattern that occurs in an individual and that is associated with present distress or disability or with
an increased risk of suffering death, pain, disability or loss of freedom
,WFDQ¶WEHDQH[SHFWDEOHand culturally sanctioned response to an event (ie. The death of a loved one)
,WFDQ¶WEHGHYLDQWEHKDYLRXU, nor conflicts that are primarily between the individual and society
Five dimensions of classification
Several major innovations distinguish the 3rd version from subsequent versions, perhaps the most sweeping
change being the use of multiaxial classification, whereby each individual is rated on 5 separate dimensions,
or axes
¾ Axis 1: All diagnostic categories except personality disorders and mental retardation
¾ Axis 2: Personality disorders and mental retardation
Axis I and II compose the classification of abnormal behaviour
¾ Axis 3: General medical condition(s)
This is important when considering medications for the patient
¾ Axis 4: Psychosocial and environmental problems (occupational, economic, interpersonal and family
problems)
¾ Axis 5: Current level of functioning (social relationships, occupational function and use of leisure time)
Diagnostic Categories
Disorders usually first diagnosed in infancy, childhood or adolescence: Intellectual, emotional and
physical disorders usually begin in infancy, childhood or adolescence.
¾ Separation anxiety, conduct disorder (violate social norms repeatedly), ADHD, mental retardation,
pervasive developmental disorders (include autistic disorders, a condition in which the individual has
www.notesolution.com
2
problems in acquiring communication skills and deficits in relating to other people), and learning disorders
(speech, reading, arithmetic, and writing skills)
Substance-related disorders: is diagnosed when ingesting some substance has changed behaviour enough to
impair social or occupational functioning. The individual may not be able to control/discontinue ingestion and
may develop withdrawal symptoms. The substances may contribute to other Axis 1 disorders (mood or anxiety
disorder)
Schizophrenia: 7KHLQGLYLGXDO¶VFRQWDFWZLWKUHDOLW\LVIDXOW\/anguage and communication are disordered;
they commonly experience hallucinations; their emotions are blunted, flattened or inappropriate, and their
social relationships and ability to work show marked deterioration
Mood disorders: moods that are extremely high or low.
¾ Major depressive disorder: the person is deeply sad and discouraged (lose weight and energy), and have
suicidal thoughts and feeling of self-reproach
¾ Mania: The person is exceedingly euphoric, irritable, more active than usual, distractible, and possessed of
unrealistically high self esteem
¾ Bipolar disorder: The person experiences episodes of mania or both mania and depression
Anxiety disorders: Have some form of irrational or overblown fear of the central disturbance
¾ Phobia: FHDU DQ REMHFW RU VLWXDWLRQVR LQWHQVHO\ WKDWWKH\PXVWDYRLGLWHYHQ ZKHQWKH\ NQRZLW¶V
unreasonable. It disrupts their lives.
¾ Panic disorder: Sudden but brief attacks of intense apprehension, so upsetting that they will tremble and
shake, feel dizzy and have trouble breathing. A panic attack may also be accompanied by agoraphobia.
Agoraphobia: when person is fearful of leaving familiar surroundings
¾ Generalized anxiety disorder: Fear and apprehension are pervasive, persistent and uncontrollable. People
feel on the edge and easily tired.
¾ Obsessive-compulsive disorder: Obsessions or compulsions. An obsession is a recurrent thought, idea, or
image that dominates their consciousness. A compulsion is an urge to perform a stereotyped act.
¾ Posttraumatic stress disorder: Anxiety and emotional numbness after a very traumatic event. They have
painful intrusive recollections by day and bad dreams at night, and feel detached from others.
¾ Acute stress disorder: Similar to posttraumatic stress disorders, but the symptoms do not last as long
Somatoform disorders: The physical symptoms have no physiological cause, but seem to serve a
psychological purpose
¾ Somatization disorder: Have a long history of multiple physical complains for which they have taken
medicine or consulted doctors
¾ Conversion disorder: A loss of motor or sensory function, such as paralysis, anaesthesia or blindness
¾ Pain disorder: Suffer from severe and prolonged pain
¾ Hypochondriasis: Misinterpretation of minor physical sensations as serious illness
¾ Dysmorphic disorder: People are preoccupied with an imagined defect in their appearance
Dissociative Disorder: psychological dissociation is sudden alteration in consciousness that affects memory
and identity
¾ Dissociative amnesia: May forget their entire past or lose their memory for a particular time period
www.notesolution.com

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
Description
Chapter 3 - Classification & Diagnosis The official diagnostic system widely used by mental health professionals is the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (the DSM), which is currently on its 4 edition (the DSM-IV) ABrief History of Classification People realized different illnesses required different treatments th There was a lot of diversity of classification in the end of the 19 century, but no universal classification system Development of the WHO and DSM Systems In 1969, the WHO published a new classification system that was more widely accepted The WHO classifications were just lists of diagnostic categories; the actual behaviour or symptoms that were the bases for the diagnoses were not specified DSM II and the British Glossary of Mental Disorders provided some crucial information, but did not specify the same symptoms for a given disorder In 1988, work began to create the DSM IV, and in 1994 it was published The Diagnostic System of the AmericanPsychiatric Association (DSM-IVand DSM-IV-TR) Definition of Mental Disorder The DSM recognizes that 9K0 9072 mental disorder is problematic and that no definition adequately specifies precise boundaries for the concept A mental disorder, according to the DSM, is conceptualized as a significant behavioural or psychological syndrome or pattern that occurs in an individualand that is associated with present distress or disability or with an increased risk of suffering death, pain, disability or loss of freedom ,9.,39-0,30[50.9,-O0and culturally sanctioned response to an event (ie. The death of a loved one) ,9.,39-00;L,39-0K,;L4:7, nor conflicts that are primarily between the individualand society Five dimensions of classification rd Several major innovations distinguish the 3 version from subsequent versions, perhaps the most sweeping change being the use of multiaxial classification, whereby each individual is rated on 5 separate dimensions, or axes Axis 1: All diagnostic categories except personality disorders and mentalretardation Axis 2: Personality disorders and mentalretardation Axis I and II compose the classification of abnormal behaviour Axis 3: General medicalcondition(s) This is important when considering medications for the patient Axis 4: Psychosocialand environmental problems (occupational, economic, interpersonaland family problems) Axis 5: Current level of functioning (socialrelationships, occupationalfunction and use of leisure time) Diagnostic Categories Disorders usually first diagnosed in infancy, childhood or adolescence: Intellectual, emotional and physical disorders usually begin in infancy, childhood or adolescence. Separation anxiety, conduct disorder (violate social norms repeatedly), ADHD, mental retardation, pervasive developmental disorders (include autistic disorders, a condition in which the individual has 1 www.notesolution.com
More Less
Unlock Document


Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit