b32Chapter 6.docx

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22 Apr 2012
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Chapter 6
- Anxiety: unpleasant feeling of fear and apprehension
Anxiety Disorders
Phobia
Fear and avoidance of objects or situations that do not present any real danger
Panic Disorder
Recurrent panic attacks involving a sudden onset of physiological symptoms, such
as dizziness, rapid heart rate, trembling accompanied by terror and feelings of
impending doom; sometimes accompanied by agoraphobia, a fear of being in public
places
Generalized
Anxiety Disorder
Persistent, uncontrollable worry, often about minor things
Obsessive-
Compulsive
Disorder
The experience of uncontrollable thoughts, impulses, or images (obsessions) and
repetitive behaviours or mental acts (compulsions)
Post-Traumatic
Stress Disorder
Aftermath of a traumatic experience in which the person experiences increased
arousal, avoidance of stimuli associated with the event, and anxiety in recalling the
event
Acute Stress
Disorder
Symptoms are the same as those of PTSD, but last for four week or less
- Comorbidity among anxiety disorders:
Symptoms of anxiety disorders are not disorder specific i.e. increased heart rate
Etiological factors that give rise to various anxiety disorders are probably applicable to
more than one disorder
- As a group, anxiety disorders the most common psychological disorders (1 in 5)
One year prevalence: 10.6%
Lifetime prevalence: 16.6%
Early onset: childhood
Women: 16%
Men: 9%
Common among university students; 12-month prevalence rate of 12% (19-25)
- Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) most common anxiety disorder
Lifetime prevalence: 8.1%
- PTSD levels close to SAD
Lifetime prevalence: 9.2%
One-month prevalence: 2.4%
- Studies have revealed those with an anxiety disorder (and substance related disorder) were less
likely to seek help from any mental health service relative to those with a mood disorder
- Over 80% of college students do not seek treatment
- Social Phobia is comorbid with other anxiety disorders, substance abuse, depressive disorder, and
bipolar disorder
- There is a strong co-occurrence of the anxiety disorders (PTSD, panic disorder, GAD and SAD)
and chronic pain, especially musculoskeletal pain
- Anxiety disorders are also independent risk factors for suicide attempts
- Comorbidity is the strongest with the depressive disorders in both clinical and community
samples
- Anxiety and depression show a strong relationship to each other at both genotypic and phenotypic
levels and are two elements of a general negative affectivity factor
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