PSYB32H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Rorschach Test, Criterion Validity, Content Validity

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Published on 3 Oct 2012
School
UTSC
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB32H3
PSYB32- Lecture 4
Assessment is important because it can tell one what is wrong with the
patient (symptoms), also it can tell what is causing the symptoms, and finally
how the symptoms can be improved
Psychologist will also evaluated the efficacy of treatment through assessment
Reliability and validity in assessment
Reliability: the consistency of the measurement; we measure it using
correlation (stronger the correlation, the more reliable the test)
Test-retest reliability: the extent to which people being observed or tested
on more than one occasion score in the same way
Inter-rater reliability: same observations by two sets of people looking at
the same symptom
Alternate-form reliability: extent to which scores on two forms of tests are
consistent (to ensure that a person does not simply remember the correct
answers from a previous time)
Internal consistency reliability: items on a test are related to one another
Validity- a test cannot be valid unless it is reliable, it concerns the idea that
does it fulfill its intended purpose? Are we actually measuring what we set
out to measure?
Content validity: does the test adequately sample the domain of interest?
Criterion validity: evaluated by determining whether a measure is
associated in an expected way with some other measure; if a test is able to
predict some sort of future behavior that it can also be considered that it
achieved criterion validity
Construct validity: relevant when we want to interpret a test as a measure
of some characteristic or construct that is not simply defined
Clinical interview- questions are derived from a particular paradigm
Structured and semi-structured interview
Collateral interview- interviewing a spouse or child of patient to gain more
insight due to feigning, unawareness, etc.
Psychologists employ psychological tests because they are more objective,
and they provide a way of scientifically finding evidence
Psychological tests: standardized procedures designed to measure a
person’s performance with respect to aspects of personality, thoughts,
feelings, and behaviours
Standardized means that they have been normed
Three main types of psychological tests: personality inventories, projective
measures, and specific inventories
Psychological screening measures are very limited because they don’t
include validity measures ie. Indicators that patients are feigning
Tests also need to be considered for context
General personality inventories
Omnibus measures- contains measures to see if person is exaggerating,
scales to tell if there is positive impression management
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Document Summary

Assessment is important because it can tell one what is wrong with the patient (symptoms), also it can tell what is causing the symptoms, and finally how the symptoms can be improved. Psychologist will also evaluated the efficacy of treatment through assessment. Reliability: the consistency of the measurement; we measure it using correlation (stronger the correlation, the more reliable the test) Test-retest reliability: the extent to which people being observed or tested on more than one occasion score in the same way. Inter-rater reliability: same observations by two sets of people looking at the same symptom. Alternate-form reliability: extent to which scores on two forms of tests are consistent (to ensure that a person does not simply remember the correct answers from a previous time) Internal consistency reliability: items on a test are related to one another. Construct validity: relevant when we want to interpret a test as a measure of some characteristic or construct that is not simply defined.

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