PSYB32H3 Lecture Notes - Cognitive Therapy, Albert Bandura, Token Economy

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Published on 9 Oct 2012
School
UTSC
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB32H3
PSYB32 Lecture 2 Prof’s Speech - Purple
Slide 3 The Role of Paradigms
- Paradigm conceptual framework or approach within which a scientist works
o Ways in which we might come to understand a patient that is before us
o A set of basic assumptions that a clinician will make
o A general perspective that defines how to conceptualize and study a subject/patient, how
to gather and interpret relevant data, and how to think about a subject/patient
Slide 4 Biological Paradigm
- Typically follows the medical model
o Mental disorder occurs because of some sort of neurobiological antecedent
o Reason for the issue can be found in the body
- Behaviour genetics
o An approach in which we try to understand disorders; the study of individual differences
in behaviour that are attributable in part to genetics
o Genotype vs. phenotype
Born with genotype; it is inherited; it is the unobservable genetic constitution that
forms genetic makeup
Phenotype product of genotype and environment; individual’s observable,
behavioural characteristics
A disorder is not inherited genetically, but it can have genetics that leave us
predisposed to presenting with the phenotype of the disorder
With a genetic predisposition, we are at a greater risk of having a particular
disorder
o Family method
If a predisposition for a mental disorder can be inherited, a study of the family
should reveal a relationship between the number of shared genes in the index
case (person who has the disorder) and the prevalence of the disorder in probands
(relatives of the index); if you are a 1st degree relative to someone with
schizophrenia, you have 10% more chance than the general population of having
schizophrenia
o Twin method
Monozygotic (MZ) twins
Identical twins; share 100% genetic material
Dizygotic (DZ) twins
Share 50% genetic material; essentially siblings
When both twins have the disorder = concordance
To the extent that a predisposition for a mental disorder can be inherited,
concordance for the disorder should be greater genetically for MZ than DZ twins
o Adoptees method
Involves twins raised by non-biological parents
Rules out environmental factors; biological factors are responsible if twins had
parents with disorder and they also present with the disorder
Linkage analysis: look for large collection of individuals within a family who
might have a disorder; looking for genetic/biological markers to link what may
be causing the disorder
Slide 5 Biological Paradigm biochemistry
- 2 key terms:
o Neurotransmission
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Neurotransmitters are molecules that move from one neuron to the next
Serotonin the brain’s workhorse molecule – inhibits violence tendency
Noradrenaline sounds alarm for outside threats
Substance p carries pain messages
Communication lines between neurons are powered with electricity
The messages neurons exchange are chemical molecules (neurotransmitters) that
are trapped in a holding tank under electricity frees them
Disorders can result when electricity is unbalanced because chemicals are
unbalanced in turn
o Reuptake
Takes place in neuron synapse
Synapse: where 2 neurons come close, but do not touch
Synaptic cleft: miniscule gap, separates pre- and postsynaptic neurons
Slide 6 Biological Paradigm: Structure and Function of the Human Brain
- Cortical brain surface
o Outer layers; structures are important for higher order cognition
o Inner structures subcortical, more involved in movement
Slide 7 Structure and Function of the Human Brain
- Subcortical structures
o Inner structures found deep in the brain, more involved with movement disorders
o Work hand-in-hand with cortical structures
- Frontal lobes responsible for executive functioning (motor movement, planning, inhibition,
emotion), important for learning, memory
o Right side: responsible for information retrieval (information coming out of the brain);
lesion on this side of the brain can give rise to manic episodes
o Left side: responsible for oncoding (information going into the brain); lesion on this side
can give rise to depressive-like states; houses Broca’s area
- Temporal lobes language centres, houses Wernicke’s area; area for comprehension of verbal
sounds; houses the hippocampus which consolidates (stamps into brain so it is later available for
retrieval) information (the process between oncoding and retrieval)
o Right side: comprehension of verbal sounds (Wernickes)
o Left side: comprehension of non-verbal sounds
- Parietal lobes visual-spatial functioning
o Left side: may see difficulty understanding movement; apraxia here
o Right side: may see visual-spatial neglect here; i.e. may only eat food on left side of the
plate
- Occipital lobes responsible for vision
Slide 10 Biological Paradigm Approaches to Treatment
- Psychoactive drugs
o Anxiolytics
Used for anxiety, sleep disorders, phobias, pain disorders
- Antidepressants
o Used for depression, eating disorders, pain disorders, dementia
- Antipsychotics
o Used for schizophrenia, behavioural disorders, dementia, neurodegenerative disorder,
depression
- Psycho-stimulants
o Improve cognition (i.e. memory, focusing), used for ADHD, Alzheimer’s, dementia
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Document Summary

Typically follows the medical model: mental disorder occurs because of some sort of neurobiological antecedent, reason for the issue can be found in the body. Behaviour genetics: an approach in which we try to understand disorders; the study of individual differences in behaviour that are attributable in part to genetics, genotype vs. phenotype. Born with genotype; it is inherited; it is the unobservable genetic constitution that forms genetic makeup. Phenotype product of genotype and environment; individual"s observable, behavioural characteristics. A disorder is not inherited genetically, but it can have genetics that leave us predisposed to presenting with the phenotype of the disorder. With a genetic predisposition, we are at a greater risk of having a particular disorder: family method. When both twins have the disorder = concordance. To the extent that a predisposition for a mental disorder can be inherited, concordance for the disorder should be greater genetically for mz than dz twins: adoptees method.

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