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Lecture

PSYB20 Ch 3

2 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB32H3
Professor
Mark Schmuckler

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PSYB20
Chapter 3 Prenatal Development and birth
The Stages of Prenatal development
- Prenatal development: 38 weeks (9 months)
- The 9 months are characterized in two ways
1. Trimsters: periods of 3 months
2. Zygote, embryo, and fetus
- Proximal-distal: growths first occurs in central
areas (internal organs) then in more distal areas
(such as arms and legs)
- Cephalo-caudal: downward from head to trunk
The zygote: (first 2 weeks)
- The sperm fertilizes the ovum = zygote
- Zygote proceeds down fallopian tubes
- Tendrils of zygote penetrate the blood vessels
in the wall of the uterus
- Zygote forms physiological dependence with
the mother
The embryo: (beg of 3rd week to end of 8th week)
- Most important physiological systems and
structures become differentiated
- Amniotic sac: thin membrane around embryo
for protection from temp, PH...
- Placenta: a fleshy, disk-like structure formed by
cells from the lining of the uterus and from the
zygote, protects and sustains embryo’s life
- Umbilical cord: a tube that contains the blood
vessels that carry blood back and forth b/w the
infant and placenta
- Most miscarriages (natural end of a pregnancy
before the infant is capable of survival outside
the womb) 1/4 pregnancies occur at this stage
The fetus: (beg. Of 3rd month to delivery)
- End of 3rd month: fetus has ALL body parts
- Month 4: starts moving
- Month 5: reflexes such as sucking, swallowing...
- Lanugo soft hair covers the body
- Month 6: eyes open and close
- Fetus can still not create enough surfactant so
birth at this point = respiratory distress
syndrome
- Age of viability: 22-26 weeks.
RISKS IN THE PRENATAL ENVIRONMENT
- Teratogens: an environmental agent that may
cause developmental deviations in a growing
human organism
- Teratogens can exert their effects on prenatal
development in specific ways:
1. It effects only during critical periods
2. Each has their own effects
3. Either maternal or fetal genotypes may
counteract its effects
4. The effect of one may intensify the
effect of another
5. Different ones may produce same
defects
6. The longer the exposure, the more
detrimental the effect
- Environmental dangers:
1. Legal and illegal drugs
2. Nicotine(smoking) and alcohol
Fetal alcohol syndrome
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder
3. Heroin, Cocaine, and other drugs
- Environmental Toxins: Lead, PCBs,
- Medical Interventions in Pregnancy and
childbirth can have negative effects:
1. DES (Diethylstilbestrol) for
miscarriages, but had serious effects
2. Thalidomide for morning sickness
3. Epidural or spinal blocks
- Maternal factors: Age and Parity (# of children
she has already), Diet, Emotional State
- Disease and Disorders in mother may affect the
infant: (ex. RH factor incompatibility: if the
mother is RH+ and child is RH-, the mothers
blood could attack fetal blood cells!)
1. Parasitic infections (Ex. Toxoplasmosis =
from raw meat or contact with feces
can cause eye and brain damage)
2. Bacterial infections (Gonorrhea,
Syphilis, Chalmydia: all STDs)
3. Viral infections (genital herpes = STD,
HIV /AIDS)
BIRTH
Stage 1: fetus moves towards cervix
Stage 2: fetus moves through vaginal opening
Stage 3: placenta detaches from the uterine wall

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Description
PSYB20 RISKS IN THE PRENATAL ENVIRONMENT Chapter 3 – Prenatal Development and birth - Teratogens: an environmental agent that may cause developmental deviations in a growing The Stages of Prenatal development human organism - Prenatal development: 38 weeks (9 months) - Teratogens can exert their effects on prenatal - The 9 months are characterized in two ways development in specific ways: 1. Trimsters: periods of 3 months 1. It effects only during critical periods 2. Zygote, embryo, and fetus 2. Each has their own effects - Proximal-distal: growths first occurs in central 3. Either maternal or fetal genotypes may areas (internal organs) then in more distal areas counteract its effects (such as arms and legs) 4. The effect of one may intensify the - Cephalo-caudal: downward from head to trunk effect of another 5. Different ones may produce same The zygote: (first 2 weeks) defects - The sperm fertilizes the ovum = zygote 6. The longer the exposure, the more - Zygote proceeds down fallopian tubes detrimental the effect - Tendrils of zygote penetrate the blood vessels - Environmental dangers: in the wall of the uterus 1. Legal and illegal drugs - Zygote forms physiological dependence with 2. Nicotine(smoking) and alcohol the mother  Fetal alcohol syndrome  Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder The embryo: (beg of 3 week to end of 8 week)th 3. Heroin, Cocaine, and other drugs - Most important physiological systems and - Environmental Toxins: Lead, PCBs, structures become differentiated - Medical Interventions in Pregnancy and - Amniotic sac: thin membrane around embryo childbirth can have negative effects: for protection from temp, PH... 1. DES (Diethylstilbestrol) –for - Placenta: a fleshy, disk-like structure formed by miscarriages, but had serious effects cells from the lining of the uterus and from the 2. Thalidomide –for morning sickness zygote, protects and sustains embryo’s life 3. Epidural or spinal blocks - Umbilical cord: a tube that contains the blood - Maternal factors: Age and Parity (# of children vessels that carry blood back and forth b/w the she has already), Diet, Emotional State infant and placenta - Disease and Disorders in mother may affect the - Most miscarriages (natural end of a p
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