PSYB32H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Body Language, Demand Characteristics, Phenotype

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Published on 12 Oct 2012
School
UTSC
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB32H3
PSYB20- Lecture 3
First design to test development:
1. Longitudinal Design
This design requires an immense amount of commitment on the part of the subject/participant
Possible that subjects are not representative of population at large.
o Subjects present may have more time on their hands or may be more educated/ respect
science more
o Participants will and can drop out for a number of reasons
o Problem with repeated testing (longitudinal design involves repeated testing with
similar tests, therefore, may do better as a result of learning from their mistakes the
first time.
o Cohort: cultural-historical effects
Ex: children born around the same time are influenced by cultural and historical
events at that time which may affect development so not too conclusive)
o Longitudinal design only tests one cohort at a time
2. Cross-sectional design:
Different groups of children of different ages
This test is much less expensive and less time consuming as well
Subjects only measured once
Problems conceptual problem (Doesn’t provide evidence of change in a particular individual
but rather across groups of individuals)
o Only estimated developmental change
o Assume their difference stem from age, but that may not be the case (fundamentally
different individuals)
Number of reasons as to why/ how individuals are different
o Cohort effect compare 5 year olds with 15 year old with 20 year olds on personalities
problematic because of the year they were born in (different cultural/historical facts
in the span of 10-15 years)
o Question of where to draw the line: 2 months vs. 8 month old same cohort or different
cohort?
Results have to be the same regardless of what study is chosen (only for the most part, ex of
not= study of intellectual level)
3. Sequential Design
Both cross and longitudinal design at same time
Ex: racial attitudes in children
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Document Summary

First design to test development: longitudinal design. This design requires an immense amount of commitment on the part of the subject/participant. Ex: children born around the same time are influenced by cultural and historical events at that time which may affect development so not too conclusive: longitudinal design only tests one cohort at a time, cross-sectional design: Different groups of children of different ages. This test is much less expensive and less time consuming as well. Number of reasons as to why/ how individuals are different: cohort effect compare 5 year olds with 15 year old with 20 year olds on personalities. Results have to be the same regardless of what study is chosen (only for the most part, ex of not= study of intellectual level: sequential design. Both cross and longitudinal design at same time. Initial cross-sectional test: longitudinal tests (bring kids back again, 2nd cross-test. Saves time and have immediate cross test results to discuss.

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