PSYB32H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 11: Alcohol-Related Dementia, Vascular Dementia, Delirium Tremens

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16 Aug 2016
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PSYB32~Lecture 11: Substance Related Disorders & Aging and Psychological Disorders
Substance Dependence:
Symptoms of substance DEPENDENCE
- Tolerance: larger dosage of the substance is needed to produce a desired effect (ex.
Alertness)
- Withdrawal: negative physical and psychological effects are developed when an
individual reduces or stops taking the substance. The person may also use the
substance to relieve withdrawal symptoms
- Person uses more of substance or uses it for a longer time than intended
- Person recognizes excessive use of substance (not really, they do not usually recognize
their situation)
- Much of the person’s time is spent trying to obtain substance or recover from its effects
- Substance use continues despite problems
- Person gives up or cuts back participating in many activities because of substance
- Difference between dependence and abuse is significant
- If one is dependent and abusive with the substance, it is an addiction
Substance Abuse:
Symptoms of substance ABUSE
- Failure to fulfill major obligations: taking care of children
- Exposure to physical dangers: drinking and driving
- Legal problems: domestic abuse
- Persistent social or interpersonal problems: getting into trouble at work or school
- If an individual has any one of these criteria’s, they may be diagnosed
Alcohol Abuse and Dependence:
Alcoholism
Delirium tremens (DTs): when the level of alcohol in one’s blood drops dramatically (ex.
Tremors, tactile hallucinations (believe bugs are all over them))
Polydrug abuse:
Prevalence of alcohol abuse: young white single, well off male is more prevalent to
conform to alcohol abuse
Comorbidity: personality disorders, depression (mostly males), social anxiety
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Course of the disorder
Disease model: the patient has no control over themselves
Moral model: it is the person’s choice with regards to their lifestyle with drinking
Short-term effects of alcohol: giggly, confidence levels increase
The following impact the impact of the alcohol on the individual
1. The amount of alcohol ingested in a particular time period
2. Presence or absence of food in the stomach, which will retain and reduce the absorption
rate into the blood stream
3. The size of the individual
4. Efficiency of the liver
Biphasic effects: when the alcohol blood level starts decline, it becomes a depressant
Long-term effects of prolonged alcohol abuse: biological effects, cirrhosis (no longer to
break down the alcohol, malnutrition, Wernicke’’ Korsakoff syndrome (alcoholic
dementia)
MDMA “The Agony and Ecstasy”:
Appetite suppressant during WWI: to save the food
supplies overseas
With using these drugs, it curved the soldier’s appetite
Legal substance used in couple’s therapy in 50s-70s
It can make one feel more open about their feelings,
therefore make couples feel comfortable communicating
with each other
Became a popular choice for recreational use in late 70s and early 80s in England in the
underground dance scene
Became illegal in early 80s with increased use
Currently, the second most used recreational substance after marijuana for its “feelings
of ecstasy”
Drug trials are occurring now
MDMA “The Agony and Ecstasy” Short Term Effects:
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Changes in brain chemistry and
behaviour
Enhances intimacy and insight
Improves interpersonal
relationships
Elevates mood for specific reasons
with regards to neurochemical
interactions on the brain (ex.
serotonin)
Serotonin levels being impacted also correlates to depression
When ecstasy is made, it may be mixed with other substances (ex. cocaine, Adderall,
Tylenol, Advil, rat poison, etc.)
The fact that no one has studied the effects of the intake of pure MDMA proves that we
do not know the true side effects to the substance
A general rule of thumb indicates, with regards to the animal research, intake of MDMA
increases the amount of serotonin, therefore one feels
heightened emotions
MDMA’s uptake increases the amount of serotonin in
levels in the synapse
1. Blocks the reuptake of the serotonin
2 . causes transporter to act in reverse, then goes into
the nerves cells and serotonin is dragged out
3. The MDMA now
inside the nerve
cells, invades the vesicle and causes more
serotonin to be released
Serotonin levels and the resulting firing of serotonin
nerve cells are increased, therefore the
overstimulation of the nerve cells occur (ex. mood,
sleep, perception, and appetite are impacted)
MDMA also increases dopamine and increased
adrenaline
Renal failure, hypothermia are the worst short term effect
MDMA
“The Agony and Ecstasy” Long Term Effects:
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