PSYB32H3 Lecture Notes - Motor Coordination, Fishing Lure, Longitudinal Study

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Published on 24 Nov 2012
Motor Development - Lecture 04 & 05
Beginning for Midterm #2
Human infants are particular disadvantage compared to many other species especially in the
motor ability , in terms of longer gestation
By end of 1 month infants reach their 1st milestone of lifting their chin up and from which
progressive motor achievement begins
Motor milestone represent average age norm ( what a child should be able to do in terms of his
age) though definite sequential & age can vary & variation in development of motor
milestone is not connected to other development aspect (e.g. intelligent)
Motor development continue into adulthood (e.g. driving a car)
2 Special issue :
o 1) Development of Reaching
o 2) Walking/Mobility Development of locomotion
Development of Reaching
There are necessary skills needed for visually-guided reaching
Visually guided reaching implies the ability to accurately reach & grasp for object seem to
develop w/in ½ year of life (which rely on development of other skills
`1) Perceptual Skills
o Need to be able to recognize object
o To understand figure-ground separation able to pick object from background in order
to reach for it
2) Motor Skills
o Need gross motor coordination in terms of arm & hand coordination
o Also need fine-motor coordination & control in order to close hand around the object &
control grasp
3) a combination of 1& 2 = Visual-Motor integration & coordination
o Visual guidance of hand arms out there going towards the direction of object
o Timing of the grasp able to close hand at right time to grasp object e.g. moving
object more complex to grasp the object
Classic Study w/ infants use brightly colour object & see how they reach (using fishing lure)
1-2 months
Glance at objects when present ( see it in isolated parts) & begin to fixate
Arm (motor) movement but is not coordinated w/ vision
Seeing grasping reflex
2-3 moths
Isolation of component breaks down begin to show visual-motor
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Focus on object & begin prehensory behaviour - meaning they accurately swipe
at object, often hitting the object
Raise hand towards object ( not grasping it )
3-4 moths
Begin to see grasp (mutual grasping w/ 1 or 2 hands)
Orient their body towards object ( turn torso toward object)
4-5 months
Visual motor integrated integrated looking & grasping
“top level” reaching finger start to close before they are touching the object
which shows fine motor movement
Good grasping of object
Reaching for moving object much more difficult have to put other perceptual skills so the
Question is when do they start to do this
Van Hofsten & Lindhagen (1979) Type of Contact With a Moving Object
Is Longitudinal study @ 3 week interval until 30 week of age , then @ 3
object moving speed of : slow, medium or fast Looked & reached for object
(at the same time fixate) found more reaches toward slower than medium
and fast objects
w/ increasing age began to converge at all speed so at older age they
reach for objects that were moving at slow, medium or fast speed
its coded for success in 3 way: Miss, Touch or Grasp
result showed:
o Infant rarely miss the object
o At young age they made contact (touch) but didn’t grasp & w/ age
touch goes down
o Because at age 18-21 weeks grasping outperform touching
The Number of reaches at each speed
and age expressed as proportion
of maximum number of possible
reaches ( 3 per condition)
The type of contact with the object
proportion of total number of
reaches grasp, touch and miss
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