PSYB45H3 Lecture Notes - Intellectual Disability, Reinforcement

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23 Jun 2011
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Chapter 14: Applying Extinction
Variations of Extinctions:
Extinction of behavior maintained by social positive reinforcement
Extinction of behavior maintained by social negative reinforcement
Extinction of behavior maintained by automatic positive reinforcement
Extinction of behavior maintained by automatic negative reinforcement
To use extinction, you must first identify the reinforcer that maintains the problem behaviour and
then eliminate it. A behaviour that is no longer reinforced will decrease in frequency and stop.
oAntecedent: female staff member makes a request
oBehaviour: Willy refuses to complete the task, makes sexist comments
oConsequence: Staff provides attention (arguing, explaining)
oOutcome: Willy is more likely to refuse to do tasks and to make sexist remarks when
female staff members make a request.
Extinction:
oAntecedent: female staff makes a request
oBehaviour: willy refuses to complete the task, makes sexist comments.
oConsequence: Staff member walks away, pays no attention
oOutcome: willy is less likely to refuse requests and make sexist comments in the future.
Reinforcement:
oAntecedent: female staff member makes a request
oBehaviour: willy complies with the request
oConsequence: staff member provides praise
oOutcome: willy is more likely to comply with staff requests in the future.
Steps in using Extinction:
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o1. Collect data to assess treatment effects
Behavioural definition
Reliable data collection method
Record the problem behaviour (baseline)
Plan to collect data in all contexts
o2. Identify the reinforcer for the problem behaviour through functional assessment
No assumptions should ever be made
Success of extinction relies on this step
Note: there may be more than one reinforcer involved
o3. Eliminate the reinforce after each instance of the problem behaviour
Have you identified the reinforcer?
Can you eliminate the reinforcer?
Is extinction safe to use?
Can an extinction burst (escalation of the problem behaviour) be tolerated?
Can consistency be maintained?
o4. Consider the schedule of reinforcement for the problem behaviour
Less resistance to extinction following Continuous reinforcement schedule
Extinction decreases behavior more slowly following intermittent
reinforcement
If its intermittent use continuous to reduce quickly.
o5. Use differential Reinforcement
Reinforce an alternative behavior to replace the problem behavior
o6. Promote generalization and maintenance
Use extinction in ALL relevant circumstances
Extinction used by EVERYONE, all the time
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