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Lecture

PSYB45H3 Lecture Notes - Developmental Disability, Junk Food, Stimulus Control


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB45H3
Professor
Zachariah Campbell

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Chapter 16: Antecedent Control Procedures
Also called antecedent manipulations
Antecedent stimuli are manipulated to evoke desirable behaviours, so that they can be
differentially reinforced and to decrease undesirable behaviours that interfere with the
desirable behaviours.
Example: getting Marianne to study more, decided on a plan
oAppropriate SD= studying at a desk by herself with her books on the desk in a
quiet location. Plan out study time and schedule. Arranging study sessions with a
friend, which is a response prompt.
Example: getting Cal to eat right
oAppropriate SD = bought healthy foods, packed healthy lunch
Antecedent control procedures involve manipulating some aspect of the physical or social
environment to evoke a desired response or to make a competing, undesirable behaviour
less likely.
Arranging Establishing Operations for the Desirable Behaviour:
oEstablishing operation is an environmental event or biological condition that
changes the value of a stimulus as a reinforcer. When an establishing operation is
present, the behaviour that results in that stimulus is evoked (more likely to
occur). Makes the reinforcer potent.
oExample: going without food for a day is an establishing operation that makes
food more reinforcing and therefore evokes the behaviour of getting and eating
food.
oOne way to make a desirable behaviour more likely to occur is to arrange an
establishing operation for the outcome of that behaviour. If you can increase the
reinforcing value of the consequence of a behaviour, you make it more likely that
the behaviour will occur.
Antecedent Manipulations that evoke a desired response:
oPresenting the SD or supplemental stimuli (cues) that have stimulus control over
the desired behaviour
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oArranging an establishing operation such that the consequence of the desirable
behaviour is more reinforcing
oDecreasing the response effort for the desirable behaviour
Decreasing Response Effort for the desirable behaviour
oAnother strategy for making a desirable behaviour more likely is to arrange
antecedent conditions such that less effort is needed to engage in the behaviour.
oBehaviours that take less response effort are more likely to occur than are
behaviours that take more reponse effort, if both result in fairly equal reinforcers.
oExample: Marianne took her books in her backpack for easy access to them to
study when the opportunity rose.
Removing Discriminative Stimulus or Cues for undesirable behaviours
oRemove the antecedent conditions that have stimulus control over it.
oIf the SD or cues for an undesirable behaviour are not present, it is less likely that
the person will engage in the behaviour.
oExample: If Cal had junk food around him he was more likely to eat it. Cal
removed the SD for eating unhealthful foods by getting rid of all the unhealthy
foods from his apartment. Also stopped taking change to stop buying junk from
vending machines.
oExample: Marianne avoided TV and other disruptive thing by going to the library
or disruptive friends.
Removing Establishing Operations for undesirable behaviours:
oIf you can make the outcome of the undesirable behaviour less reinforcing, you
will be less likely to engage in the behaviour and, thus, more likely to engage in
the desirable behaviour.
oYou make the outcome of the undesirable behaviour less reinforcing by removing
the establishing operation for the reinforcer. This is not always possible.
oExamples:
Purchasing and eating junk food when grocery shopping
Food shopping only after eating beforehand
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