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PSYB45H3 Lecture Notes - Reinforcement

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Zachariah Campbell

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Chapter 17: Using Punishment: time-out and response cost
Punishment used to decrease problem behaviour
Punishment procedures are done only after functional nonaversive interventions- extinction,
differential reinforcement, and antecedent manipulation- have been implemented.
If functional nonaversive interventions are ineffective punishment procedures can be considered.
Time-out: the loss of access to positive reinforcers for a brief period contingent on the problem
behaviour. Result, a decrease in the future probability of the problem behaviour
Types of time-out:
oExclusionary time-out:
The person is removed from the room (reinforcing environment) where the
problem behaviour occurred and is taken to another room. This removes the
person from all sources of positive reinforcement.
oNonexclusionary time-out:
The person remains in the room while being removed from access to positive
Using reinforcement with time-out:
oWhenever you use time-out or any other punishment procedure, use a differential
reinforcement procedure.
oTime-out procedure decrease the rate of the problem behaviour and a differential
reinforcement increases alternative behaviour to replace the problem (DRA or DRO)
oIf used time-out without differential reinforcement problem behaviour can re-emerge.
Considerations in using Time-out:
oWhat is the function of the problem behaviour?
NOT negatively reinforced by the potential intervention and NOT reinforced
by sensory stimulation
oIs time-out practical in the circumstances?
Aggression and client size
oIs time-out safe?
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