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PSYB45H3 Lecture Notes - Bes, Abusive Power And Control

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Zachariah Campbell

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Chapter 20: Self-Management
When a person uses behaviour modification procedures to change his or her own behaviour
People exhibit behavioural deficits, they fail to engage in desirable behaviours. The behaviours are
desirable because they will have a positive impact on the peoples lives in the future. However,
even though the future outcome of the behaviour will be positive, the behaviour doesn;t occur
because it is not reinforced immediately when it occurs or because competing behaviour that is
immediately reinforced interferes with its occurrence.
Because the positive outcome is in the future, it doesnt exert an influence on the occurrence of
the desirable behaviour at present.
Self management problem is an excess of an undesirable behaviour. Behaviour is undesirable
because it will have a negative impact on the persons life in the future.
Examples of behavioural excesses are overeating, smoking, alcohol abuse, and gambling.
Behavioural deficit: studying
Immediate contingency: lack of reinforcement, response effort, reinforcement of competing
behaviour (TV, parties)
Delayed Positive Outcomes: good grades, graduation, job or graduate school.
Self-management involves a controlling behaviour and a controlled behaviour. Meaning the
person engages in the controlling behaviour to influence the future occurrence of the controlled
Controlling behaviour involves implementing self-management strategies in which the
antecedents and consequences of the target behaviour or alternative behaviours are
modified; these strategies make the controlled behaviour (target behaviour) more likely
Types of Self-Management Strategies:
Goal-Setting and Self-Monitoring :
Goal-setting involves writing down the criterion level of the target behaviour and
the time frame for the occurrence of the behaviour. By itself this method is not
effective. If in conjunction with self-monitoring it is more effective.
Self-monitoring involves you record each instance of the target behaviour as it
occurs. May result in a beneficial change in the target behaviour that is being
Antecedent Manipulations to increase a desirable behaviour and decrease an undesirable
Present SD or cues for the desirable behaviour
Eliminate SD or cues for the undesirable behaviours
Arrange establishing operations for the desirable behaviour
Eliminate establishing operations for the undesirable behaviours
Decrease response effort for the desirable behaviour
Increase response effort for the undesirable behaviours
Consequence manipulations to increase a desirable behaviour and decrease an
undesirable behaviour
Provide reinforcers for the desirable behaviour
Eliminate reinforcers for the undesirable behaviours
Eliminate punishers for the desirable behaviour
Provide punishers for the undesirable behaviours
Use skills training procedures to teach desirable behaviours
Behavioural Contracting:
Is a written document in which you identify the target behaviour and arrange
consequences contingent on a specified level of the target behaviour in a specific
time period. Although another person applies the consequences a behavioural
contract is considered to be a type for self-management strategy because the
behaviour of entering into the contract is a controlling behaviour designed to
influence the future occurrence of the target behaviour.
You identify and define the criterion level of the target behaviour to be changed,
establish a method a collection, define the criterion level of the target behaviour
to be achieved in the time frame of the contract, and arrange the contingencies
and the person to implement the contingencies to influence the target behaviour.
Short-circuiting Contingency: when a person arranges a reinforcer for a target
behaviour but then takes the reinforcer without first engaging in the target
Arranging Reinforcers and Punishers
Arranging contingencies of reinforcement or punishment without writing them in
to contract.
You might arrange a reinforcement or punishment contingency with yourself,
such as a plan that you will eat breakfast only after you have studied for an hour
in the morning. Eating breakfast is a reinforcer for studying. However, because
you are implementing the reinforcement contingency yourself, you are able to
short-circuit the contingency. You could eat breakfast even if you didnt study for
the hour.
Social Support:
Occurs when significant others in a persons life provide a natural context or cues
for the occurrence of the target behaviour or when they naturally provide
reinforcing consequences for the occurrence of the target behaviour.
Self-instructions and Self-praise:
Influence your behaviour by talking to yourself in specific ways.
In essence, with self-instructions you are telling yourself what to do or how to do
it in situations that call for a specific target behaviour. Immediately after the
appropriate behaviour occurs, you can recite self-praise statements in which you
provide positive evaluations of your own behaviour.
Steps in a self-management plan:
Make the decision to engage in self-management
Define the target behaviour and competing behaviours
Set goals
Conduct a functional assessment
Choose appropriate self-management strategies
Evaluate change
Re-evaluate self-management strategies
Implement maintenance strategies