PSYB45H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Autism Spectrum, Nail Biting, Gie

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Published on 22 Feb 2017
School
UTSC
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB45H3
Professor
PSYB45 Lecture 6: Decreasing Behaviour and Escape and Avoidance
Conditioning
In The News
Tim Hortons enhances Roll Up the Rim ahead of 5-year plan
o https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xyl6Et9bjKY
o What concept does this tie to? Variable reinforcement
o Parallels to slot machines and variable ration schedule
o See that people might buy their coffee more often
4 Old-School Potty Training Tips That Actually Work
o Get the toddler used to toilets and all kinds of them before you potty train them
o “o that the hild is’t ol used to that oe pott that the’e ee taied to use
o What concept does this link to? Stimulus generalization
o Important to expose an individual to various forms of the stimuli
Older Canadians skip filling prescriptions due to cost, new study says
o Punishment Highe osts ause the people to stop thei ehaiou fillig oe’s
medication/getting prescribed medicine)
o Not a good idea because punishment should be used to stop undesired behaviour
Differential Reinforcement
Schedules that reinforce specific rates of responding
o In theory this can be used to reinforce high or low rates of a response
o But the focus of Ch. 12 is on decreasing response rates
Differential reinforcement: Applying reinforcement to a correct response, and no
reinforcement when there is no response
o Several different possible applications
Why you might do this? When or where?
o More complex than simple reinforcement
Complex like intermittent reinforcement
o A case of using reinforcement to decrease or eliminate behaviours?
Use differential reinforcement in a way to make the behaviour happen less
frequently
Reinforce the absence/lack of behaviour and have it happen in a more spread
out fashion
Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates
Differential reinforcement of low rates (DRL): Reinforcer is presented only if a particular
response occurs at a low rate
Two types of DRL
o Limited-responding DRL: Specifies a maximum number of responses that are allowed
during a certain time interval in order for reinforcement to occur
For when some of the behaviour is tolerable (but you want it to occur less)
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As log as the peso does less o eual to that ue, the’ll get the
reinforcement
Example: teacher made the limited number of times a kid shouts in class 3
times, so if the kid shouts 4 times he gets no reinforcement, if he shouts only
twice, he gets reinforcement
o Spaced-responding DRL: Specified behaviour cannot occur at all during certain time
interval; after interval has passed, the behaviour must occur for reinforcement
For when the behaviour must be spaced out over time
Example: participation in class by raising your hand is desirable, but if a child
aises his had too uh ad does’t gie othes a hae to speak, the
she/he needs to learn to space out his/her responding
Get the eager student to only provide an answer every 15 minutes to allow
others to speak in class too
Repeat intervals if participant fails the first time to avoid making that behaviour
during the interval
Differential Reinforcement of Zero Responding
Differential reinforcement of zero responding (DRO): Reinforcer is presented only if a target
behaviour does not occur during a specified time interval
o If the behaviour occurs, the clock starts over
o Also called diffeetial eifoeet of othe espodig
o The length of the time interval should be increased gradually
Unlike spaced-out reinforcement, behaviour in this type of reinforcement cannot occur at all
Alternatives are important
o Example: for 30 minutes, kids cannot get out of their seats Suggest alternative
ehaious to do, as log as the kids ae’t gettig out of thei seats fo 3 iutes
Examples:
o Reducing nail biting If I do’t ite  ails fo the et hou, I a eard myself
ith seets
o Self-injurious behaviours You want 0 instances of this behaviour from a child (who
probably has a developmental disability)
Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible Responding
Differential reinforcement of incompatible responding (DRI): Like DRO, but specifies an
incompatible alternative behaviour
o The undesirable behaviour is literally not possible when engaged in the incompatible
behaviour
o Reinforcement is given for the incompatible behaviour
Examples:
o Reinforcing sitting in a chair to reduce running around the classroom
Sitting in a chair is incompatible with running around the classroom
o Nail biting “peif soethig else to do ith ou hads that o’t let ou ite ou
nails
o Yelling Reinforce someone to discuss something in a quiet voice (a book for example)
Give them something else to focus on
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o Banging table with fists Keep hads us so that the o’t ag o the tale
Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behaviour
Differential reinforcement of alternative behaviour (DRA): Extinction of a problem behaviour
combined with the reinforcement of a desirable behaviour (that is not necessarily incompatible)
o Recall: Extinction is most effective under this kind of scenario Whe ou’e
reinforcing a desirable behaviour at the same time
Example: Ignoring aggressive demands from a student, and reinforcing polite communication
How to Effectively Implement Intermittent Schedules to Decrease Behaviour
1. Select the most appropriate schedule for decreasing the target behaviour
2. Select the reinforcer, ideally one that had been maintaining the behaviour to be reduced
a. Fo this patiula idiidual, hat ill e the ost effetie eifoe?
3. Record baseline data to help decide on the initial value for the chosen schedule (i.e., length of
initial time interval, or number of allowed responses)
a. Come up with the most realistic place to start Eaple: if a hild a’t sta seated
loge tha  iutes, ou should’t stat ith a iteal of a hou
4. Follow relevant procedures
5. If possible, provide instructions/information about the rules to the individual
Video Example
Real life application of differential reinforcement with children on the autism spectrum
o http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OKl2aQSTFno
o DRA example: alternative for crying, pushing and grabbing, woman prompts him to
ake euests aaa ad does’t eifoe his ig ad pushig etitio
o DRI example: undesirable behaviour: playing with food before eating, woman distracts
boy with a tv show then gets boy to put food in his mouth, then reinforces the
behaviour of eating without playing with the food (eating food and smashing food are
incompatible behaviours)
o Important to get a desirable replacement to problematic behaviour
Review/Discussion Questions
How is a spaced-responding DRL schedule similar to and different from a fixed-interval
schedule?
o In both: the first response following a certain period of time receives reinforcement
In spaced-responding DRL the time interval is measured from the previous
response, but in FI the time interval is usually measured from the previous
reinforcer
o The impact of responding before the time interval has passed differs in the two
schedules
In spaced-responding DRL, responding before the time is up causes the clock to
start again; in FI, responding before the time is up has no consequences
What is one way that a spaced-responding DRL schedule differs from a fixed-duration schedule?
o In spaced-responding DRL, a fixed time must pass in which the response does not occur
in order for a response to produce a reinforcer
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Document Summary

Psyb45 lecture 6: decreasing behaviour and escape and avoidance. Variable reinforcement: parallels to slot machines and variable ration schedule, see that people might buy their coffee more often. Important to expose an individual to various forms of the stimuli. Schedules that reinforce specific rates of responding. In theory this can be used to reinforce high or low rates of a response: but the focus of ch. Differential reinforcement: applying reinforcement to a correct response, and no reinforcement when there is no response: several different possible applications. When or where: more complex than simple reinforcement. Use differential reinforcement in a way to make the behaviour happen less frequently. Reinforce the absence/lack of behaviour and have it happen in a more spread out fashion. Differential reinforcement of low rates (drl): reinforcer is presented only if a particular response occurs at a low rate.