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Lecture Note For PSYB45, Lecture 2

by OC2

Course Code
Christian Campbell

of 3
Chapter 2
Areas of Application:
Parenting and Child Management
- Behavioural techniques have been applied to help teach parents on methods to
im prove their child-rearing practices.
- They have been applied to parents to help teach their children how to walk,
develop initial language skills, toilet training, and encourage household
- Parents have also been taught behavioral strategies to help reduce problem
behaviours such as temper tantrums, not obeying parents, nail biting, ignoring
rules etc
Education: From Preschool to University
- Many behaviour modification approaches have been used in schools
- An important innovation in behavioral approaches to teaching is the
Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). PSI was developed by Fred S.
Killer and his colleagues in the United States as a behaviour modification
approach to university teaching. Teachers use this approach to improve
classroom instruction.
-In the 1960’s the most dramatic successes of behaviour modification have occurred in
applications to individuals with severed behavioral problems.
Childhood Autism
- Children diagnosed with autism often show some behaviors similar to children
diagnosed with developmental disabilities in that they score much bellowed
average on a variety of self-care tasks, such as dressing, grooming, and
- No alternative treatment for children with autism has been shown to be as
successful as applied behaviour analysis
- Because inadequate social relationships are a prime contributor to the poor
quality of life experienced by people with schizophrenia, social skills have
been one of the behaviors targeted for change.
- CB techniques have also been used effectively to reduce or eliminate
hallucinations or delusions in persons with schizophrenia.
- CBT can make a significant contribution to the treatment, management, and
rehabilitation of persons with schizophrenia.
-discussed in chapter 28
Medical and Health Care
- Behavioural Medicine- a broad interdisciplinary field concerned with the links
among health, illness and behaviour.
- Health Psychology- considers how psychological factors can influence or
cause illness, and how people can be encouraged to practice healthy behaviour
so as to prevent health problems
- Health psychologists have applied behavioral principles in five major areas:
1) Direct Treatment of medical problems-
!Biofeedback- a behavioral technique used when treating
symptoms which consists of providing immediate information to
an individual about that person’s physiological processes, such as
heart rate, blood pressure, muscle tension, etc.
2) Establishing Treatment Compliance-Compliant with medical
regimens is a natural for behaviour modification where compliance is
key in promoting or encouraging patients to keep track of their
appointments and medications without being lazy or forgetting, and
just not taking your meds which could jeopardize your treatment plan.
3) Promotion of Healthy Living- promoting healthy living, by
exercising, limit consumption of alcohol and smoking
! Important area of behaviour modification involves the
technique to help people manage their own behaviour to stay healthy, such
as eating well, and getting exercise
4) Management of Caregivers- health psychologists deal with eh
behaviour of the patient’s family, friends, and various medical staff
who care for the patient (to possibly help improve the medical service
given to their patients).
5) Stress Management- concerns of stressors that effects behaviour and
the development of behavioral strategies for coping with stressors.
Behaviour modification has also been applied to improve the performance of individuals
in a wife variety of organizational setting which is referred to as Organizational
Behaviour Management (OBM).
- Emphasizes specific activities of staff that characterizes successful
performances or produce successful results.
- It also emphasizes frequent feedback and rewards for employees who show
desirable behaviours.
Applied Sport Psychology
- has been defined as the use of psychological knowledge to enhance athletic
performance and the satisfaction of athletes and others associated with sports
! Techniques for improving skills of athletes
! Strategies for motivating practice and endurance training
! Changing the behaviour of coaches
!Sports Psyching” to prepare for competition
- Behaviour modifiers have begun to pay more attention to issues of race,
gender, ethnicity, and sexual orientation as variable that can influence the
effectiveness of treatment. NEED THE END OF THIS SENTENCE!!. IT