PSYB45H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Classical Conditioning, Operant Conditioning, Conditioned Taste Aversion
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Lecture 2: Respondent vs. Operant Conditioning; Positive and
Brief Exercise !
-think of 1-2 behaviours you would like to change over the next few months — be speciﬁc; do
you want to do more of something or less of something? !
•e.g. start to practice mindfulness meditation; to begin, 10 minutes, 2 times a week !
•mine — do readings before lecture; to start, try with easier courses ﬁrst !
•e.g. fall asleep earlier !
-how would you increase or decrease this behaviour? !
•e.g. download meditation apps; mediate before watching a favourite TV show !
•mine — increase amount of time to do homework before class by waking up earlier!
•e.g. put phone away an hour before bed !
Two Main Types of Conditioning!
-respondent conditioning (classical, Pavlovian) !
-operant conditioning !
-respondent behaviours — behaviours that are elicited by prior stimuli (come before the
behaviour) and the behaviours are not aﬀected by their consequences; e.g. salivating to
food, which comes ﬁrst, and you don’t do it because of a consequence since you don’t get
rewarded for salivating; smaller set of behaviours; e.g. blushing, salivating !
-operant behaviours — behaviours that are modiﬁed by their consequences; increased by
reinforcers, decreased by punishers; voluntary behaviours, most of our behaviours are this;
e.g. gambling, driving at speed limit !
-respondent conditioning — also called classical conditioning or Pavlovian conditioning;
involves unconditioned reﬂexes or involuntary behaviour (e.g. salivation in response to food),
that become paired with certain stimuli!
-operant conditioning — also called instrumental conditioning, has to do with the
consequences of voluntary behaviours !
-deals with behaviours that are elicited automatically by some stimulus !
•no production of a new behaviour !
•getting an existing behaviour to occur, to diﬀerent stimuli !
•involves reﬂexive behaviour (unlearned) !
•learning of new stimulus-response connections, by pairing of stimuli !
-unconditioned stimulus (US) — elicits a response without prior learning or conditioning !
-unconditioned response (UR) — unlearned response, elicited by a US !
-conditioned stimulus (CS) — originally neutral, now elicits reﬂexive response (due to pairing
with another stimulus that elicits the reﬂexive response) !
-conditioned response (CR) — learned reﬂexive response elicited by a CS !
-the principle of respondent conditioning — a neutral stimulus followed closely in time by
an US that elicits an UR will then also tend to elicit that same response in time (thereby
becoming a CS)!
-unconditioned reﬂex — stimulus-response relationship in which a stimulus automatically
elicits a response without any prior learning; e.g. salivation in response to food or sweating
in response to heat !
-conditioned reﬂex — stimulus-response relationship in which a stimulus elicits a response
because of prior respondent conditioning; e.g. salivating in response to a bell !
-factors that inﬂuence respondent conditioning !
•number of pairings of the CS with the US !
•the timing of the CS in relation to the US — usually, present the CS right before the US !
•consistent pairing of the CS with the US — pairing establishes faster when consistent !
•intensity of the CS and the US — more intense, more powerful, clear, and noticeable so it
has an impact and is distinguished from the ; don’t want to be way too intense, e.g.
causing them a lot of pain !
Lecture 2: respondent vs. operant conditioning; positive and. Operant behaviours behaviours that are modi ed by their consequences; increased by reinforcers, decreased by punishers; voluntary behaviours, most of our behaviours are this; e. g. gambling, driving at speed limit. Respondent conditioning also called classical conditioning or pavlovian conditioning; involves unconditioned re exes or involuntary behaviour (e. g. salivation in response to food), that become paired with certain stimuli. Operant conditioning also called instrumental conditioning, has to do with the consequences of voluntary behaviours. Deals with behaviours that are elicited automatically by some stimulus: no production of a new behaviour. : getting an existing behaviour to occur, to di erent stimuli, involves re exive behaviour (unlearned, learning of new stimulus-response connections, by pairing of stimuli. Unconditioned stimulus (us) elicits a response without prior learning or conditioning. Unconditioned response (ur) unlearned response, elicited by a us.