Procedures based on principles of Respondent Conditioning
Operant versus Respondent Behavior
- Operant conditioning- behaviour that operates on the environment can be
modified its consequences.
- Consequences that cause behaviour to increase are called reinforcers, and
those that cause it to decrease are called punishers.
- Operant Behaviours- behaviours that operate on the environment to generate
conswquences, are are in turn controlled bny those consequences.
Examples! putting gas in your car, asking for directions, writing an exam,
- Respondent Behaviours- more like innate behaviours that are just occur
without controlling them. Example! being frightened when watching a scary
movie, drooling when you smell food, becoming sexually aroused when you
what porn, etc.
- A respondent condition is also called Pavlovian Conditioning.
Principle of Respondent Conditioning
- The respondent conditioning principle is based on the fact that certain
stimulus automatically elicit certain responses apart form any prior learning or
conditioning experience. These “automatic” stimulus-response relationship[s
are called” unconditioned reflexes” (unconditioned because they elicit
responses WITHOUT NO PRIOR LEARNING)
- Unconditioned stimulus (US) - a stimulus that elicits a response without
prior learning or conditioning.
- Unconditioned Response (UR)-a response elicited by such a stimulus (the
- Neutral Stimulus- A particular stimulus that alone does not elicit a response,
but when paired with a stimulus that does elicit a response (ex. Food), then it
will elicit a response (UR= salivation)
- The principle of Respondent Conditioning states that if that neutral stimulus
(bell sounds) is followed closely in time by a US (food in mouth) which elicits
a UR (salivation, then the previously neutral stimulus becomes he
conditioned stimulus (CS), which elicits a conditioned response (CR)
(salivation to the sound of the bell).
Factors Influencing Respondent Conditioning
1) the greater the number of pairing of a CS with a US, the greater the ability of
the CS to elicit the CR, until a maximum strength of a condition reflex has
2) Stronger conditioning occurs if the CS precedes the US by about half a
second, rather than by a longer or rather than following the US.
3) A CS acquires greater ability to elicit a CR if the CS is always paired with a
given US than if it is only occasionally paired with the US.