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Lecture

Lecture Note For PSYB45, Lecture 25

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB45H3
Professor
Christian Campbell

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Chapter 25
Token Economies
-Conditioned reinforcers, such as money, endure and can be accumulated until they are
exchanged for backup reinforcers, such as food or clothing.
-Conditioned reinforcers of the latter type are called tokens.
-a program in which a group of individuals can earn tokens for a variety of desirable
behaviours, and can exchange tokens earned for backup reinforcers, is called token
economy.
-There are two major advantages of using a token economy:
1) They can be given immediately after a desirable behavior occurs and cashed in
at a later time for a backup reinforcer. Thus they can be used to “bridge long
delays between the target response and a backup reinforcer, which is especially
important when it is impractical or impossible to deliver the backup reinforcer
immediately after the behavior.
2) Tokens that are paired with many different backup reinforcers are generalized
conditioned reinforcers and therefore do not depend on a specific motivating operation
for their strength. This makes it easier to administer consistent and effective reinforcers
when dealing with a group of individuals who may be in different motivational states.
Deciding on the Target Behaviors
- The target behaviour will be determined largely by the type of invidicuals
with whom you are working, by the short rang and long range objectives you
wish to accomplish with those individuals, and by specific behavioral
problems you are encountering that interfere with the realization of those
objectives.
- Example! if you are the teacher for a bunch of grade 1 students, your
objectives will likely including teaching reading, writing, counting, math, etc.
Your target behaviours will include those that are involved in these skills or
are prerequisite to them, and they must be defined clearly enough so that the
student know what behaviours are expected of them and so that you can
reinforcer those behaviors reliably when they occur. Hus at least one of your
target behaviors might besitting quietly” when the teacher gives out
instructions.
- The more homogeneous the group with which you are dealing with, the easier
it is to standardize the rules concerning with specific responses will be
reinforced with what specific number of tokens.
- Easier to have a group of individuals with roughly the same behavioral level.
-Baseline behaviors should be obtained before initiating a token economy. After the
program has been started, comparing the data with the baseline data will enable you to
determine the effectiveness of the program.
-After establishing what your backup reinforcers are going to be and how you are going
to obtain them, you should next consider the general method of dispensing them.
! a store or commissary is an essential feature of most token economies.
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Description
Chapter 25 Token Economies -Conditioned reinforcers, such as money, endure and can be accumulated until they are exchanged for backup reinforcers, such as food or clothing. -Conditioned reinforcers of the latter type are called tokens. -a program in which a group of individuals can earn tokens for a variety of desirable behaviours, and can exchange tokens earned for backup reinforcers, is called token economy. -There are two major advantages of using a token economy: 1) They can be given immediately after a desirable behavior occurs and cashed in at a later time for a backup reinforcer. Thus they can be used to “bridge” long delays between the target response and a backup reinforcer, which is especially important when it is impractical or impossible to deliver the backup reinforcer immediately after the behavior. 2) Tokens that are paired with many different backup reinforcers are generalized conditioned reinforcers and therefore do not depend on a specific motivating operation for their strength. This makes it easier to administer consistent and effective reinforcers when dealing with a group of individuals who may be in different motivational states. Deciding on the Target Behaviors - The target behaviour will be determined largely by the type of invidicuals with whom you are working, by the short rang and long range objectives you wish to accomplish with those individuals, and by specific behavioral problems you are encountering that interfere with the realization of those objectives. - Example! if you are the teacher for a bunch of grade 1 students, your objectives will likely including teaching reading, writing, counting, math, etc. Your target behaviours will include those that are involved in these skills or are prerequisite to them, and they must be defined clearly enough so that the student know what behaviours are expected of them and so that you can reinforcer those behaviors reliably when they occur. Hus at least one of your target behaviors might be “sitting quietly” when the teacher gives out instructions. - The more homogeneous the group with which you are dealing with, the easier it is to standardize the rules concerning with specific responses will be reinforced with what specific number of tokens. - Easier to have a group of individuals with roughly the same behavioral level. -Baseline behaviors should be obtained before initiating a token economy. After the program has been started, comparing the data with the baseline data will enable you to determine the effectiveness of the program. -After establishing what your backup reinforcers are going to be and how you are going to obtain them, you should next consider the general method of dispensing them. ! a store or commissary is an essential feature of most token economies. www.notesolution.com Selecting the Type of Tokens to Use - Tokens can be in the shape of anything. It can be “fake” money chips/coins, “checks”, entries in a “bank book” or marks on a chart, etc carried out by clients, stickers stars or stamps - In general, tokens should be attractive, lightweight, portable, durable, easy to handle, and of course, not easily counterfeited. Specific Implementation Procedures -Before and during the implementation of a oken economy there are, as with any other new program, a number of specific procedures to be decided on and implemented on: 1) Keeping Data- here we are concerned with what sor of fata sheets should be used, who is to record the data, and when the data are to be recorded. 2) The reinforcing Agent- it is important to decide wo is going to administer reinforcement, and for what behaviors. In addition, car should be taken to ensure that tokens are always delivered in a positive manner following a desired response. 3) Number or Frequency of Token to Pay- within the first few days of token economy, several tokens may be given out. However, it is recommended that further on the course of the program. Fewer tokens be given out. 4) Managing the Backup Reinforcers- have to consider how frequently backup reinforcers will be available to be purchased (that is, how frequently the “Store” will be open for business). In the beginning, frequency should be quite high, then gradually decreased - Also necessary to decide how many tokens each backup reinforcer will cost. - supply and demand! that is, charge more for items who demand exceeds the supply and less for items who supply exceeds the demand. This will help to maintain an adequate supply of effective reinforcers and promote optimal utilization of the reinforcing power of each backup reinforcer. 5) Possible Punishment Contingencies- the use of tokens produces the possibility of using fines as punishment for inappropriate behavior. This type of punishment may be preferable, from an ethical point of view. 6) Supervision of Staff- the managers of a token economy, no less than the clients, are subject to the laws of behavior. They must receive frequent reinforcement for appropriate behavior, and their appropriate behavior must be corrected if the token economy is to function effectively. 7) Handing Potential Problems-Some problems that are likely to arise are: confusion, especially during the first few days after token economy has started. B) Staff shortages. C) Attempts by clients to get tokens that have not earned or backup reinforcers for which they do not have enough tokens for. D) Clients playing with tokens and manipulating them in distracting ways and E) failure to purchase backup reinforcers. www.notesolution.com Preparing a Manual - Final stage to complete before implementing the token economy is to prepare a manual or written set of rules describing exactly how the economy is to run. - The manual should include definite procedures for evaluating whether or not the rules are being followed adequately and procedures for ensuring that they are. Programming Generality to the Natural Environment - There are two general ways of weaning a client from tokens 1) Eliminate the token gradually- this can be done by gradually making the schedule for token delivery more and more intermittent, by gradually decreasing the number of behaviours that earn tokens, or by gradually increasing the delay between the target behavior and token delivery. 2) Decrease their value gradually. www.notesolution.comChapter 25 Token Economies -Conditioned reinforcers, such as money, endure and can be accumulated until they are exchanged for backup reinforcers, such as food or clothing. -Conditioned reinforcers of the latter type are called tokens. -a program in which a group of individuals can earn tokens for a variety of desirable behaviours, and can exchange tokens earned for backup reinforcers, is called token economy. -There are two major advantages of using a token economy: 1) They can be given immediately after a desirable behavior occurs and cashed in at a later time for a backup reinforcer. Thus they can be used to bridge long delays between the target response and a backup reinforcer, which is especially important when it is impractical or impossible to deliver the backup reinforcer immediately after the behavior. 2) Tokens that are paired with many different backup reinforcers are generalized conditioned reinforcers and therefore do not depend on a specific motivating operation for their strength. This makes it easier to administer consistent and effective reinforcers when dealing with a group of individuals who may be in different motivational states. Deciding on the Target Behaviors - The target behaviour will be determined largely by the type of invidicuals with whom you are working, by the short rang and long range objectives you wish to accomplish with those individuals, and by specific behavioral
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