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Lecture Note For Chapter 2, come and see

by OC2

Course Code
Christian Campbell

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Chapter 2: Areas of Application: An overview
Parenting and Child Management
! Behavioral techniques have been applied to help parents more effectively teach their children to walk,
develop initial language skills, provide effective toilet training, and influence their children to do
household chores
! Parents also taught behavioral strategies to decrease problem behaviors
! Some child and adolescent behavior problems are complex enough that in addition to helping parents
work with their children, behaviorally oriented clinical psychologists treat the problems directly
Education: From Preschool to university
! Many applications in elementary school were designed to change student behaviors that were disruptive
or incompatible with academic learning
! The progress that has been made includes:
a) Development of reliable observations for monitoring the behavior of physical education teachers and
b) Increased acceptance of behavioral teaching skills as important components of teacher preparation
c) Increased acceptance of behavioral strategies to help physical educators to manage a variety of
behavioral difficulties of students
! Keller made Personalized system of instructions (PSI) BM approach to university teaching; used to
improve classroom instructions
o Identifies target behaviors or learning requirements for a course in the form of study questions
o Requires students to study only a small amount of material before demonstrating mastery
o Has frequent tests in which students demonstrate their knowledge of answers to the study questions
o Has mastery criteria so that students must demonstrate mastery at a particular level before going on the
next level
o Nonpunitive, in that students are not penalized for failing to demonstrate mastery on a test but simply
restudy and try again
o Uses number of student assistants (proctors) to score tests immediately and provide feedback to students
concerning test performance
o Incorporates a “go at your own pace” feature in which students are allowed to proceed thru the course
material at rates that suit their own particular abilities and time demands
o Uses lectures primarily for motivation and demonstration, rather than as a major means of presenting new
! PSI courses require good deal of labor to administer, especially with large classes, because extensive
record keeping is required
! Computers/email make things a lot easier
! Students receive more feedback
Severe Problems: Developmental disabilities
! Mental retardation is a disability characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning
and in adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social and practical adaptive skills. Disability
originates before age 18
! In AAMR: limited intellectual functioning is defined as an IQ scare that is at least two standard
deviations below the mean of an appropriate assessment instrument, which would be a score ~ 70 to 75 or
below on some IQ test! includes 2.3% of population
! AAMR believed that individuals should be classified according to intensity and pattern of support that
they require (intermittent, limited, extensive and pervasive)
! AAMR places greater emphasis on assessing and improving an individual’s adaptive behavior
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