Lecture Note For Chapter 7, come and see

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20 Jul 2010
Chapter 7: Types of Intermittent Reinforcement to Decrease Behavior
Schedules used to decrease or eliminate responding that is inappropriate
Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates (DRL): Reinforcement occurs only when responding is occurring at
a low rate, responding will subsequently tend to occur at a low rate
! One type of DRL is called limited responding DRL: it specifies a maximum allowable number of
responses during a certain time interval in order for reinforcement to occurhave to specify interval,
when reinforcement will be given and it would occur if it contained fewer than a specified number
o Maximum allowable number of responses for reinforcement to occur can be specified for an entire
session, or for separate intervals throughout the session
o It is useful when two conditions hold (1) some of the behavior is tolerable and (2) less of it is better
! Another type of DRL is called spaced- responding DRL: requires that a specified behavior does not
occur during a specific interval, and after the interval has passed, that an instance of that behavior must
then occur for reinforcement
o Instances of specified behavior must be spaced out over time
o Useful when behavior you want to reduce is actually desirable, provided that it does not occur at too
high a rate
o Target response before the interval has passed causes the timing of the interval to start over again
o If you want 1 response in 15 minute interval it is called spaced-responding DRL 1-response/ 15 minutes
o Requires that response be emitted in order for reinforcement to occur
o Can use this to decrease speed of speaking and eating rate
Differential Reinforcement for Zero Responding (DRO): Schedule in which reinforcer is presented only if a
specified response does not occur during a specified period of time
! Target response before that interval has passed causes timing of the interval to start over again
! Differential reinforcement of other responding: given reinforcement for doing anything other than
undesirable behavior
! DRO schedules have been used successfully to decrease a variety of target behaviors, such as
inappropriate behavior in classrooms or self-injurious behavior of persons with developmental disabilities
! If undesirable behavior occurs often and for long intervals, it would be wise to begin with a DRO short
durationsize of DRO should continue to be increased until (a) behavior is occurring very rarely or not
at all and (b) a minimum amount of reinforcement is being given for its nonoccurrence
Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible Responding: Specify explicitly an incompatible response that is
to be reinforced in eliminating a particular target response
o Incompatible response: response that cannot be emitted at the same time as the target response (e.g.
sitting and standing)
! If we decide to decrease a target response by withholding reinforcers for it (if we know this source and
block them) and reinforcing an incompatible response, the schedule is referred to as DRI: differential
reinforcement of incompatible responding
! Example: want to stop running around in class so might use DRI and specify the incompatible behavior
that is to be reinforced such as reinforce sitting quietly
! Allen and Stokes applied DRI to strengthen the incompatible behavior of being still and quiet while
children were being treated in a dentist’s chair
! Other example: arriving late to classes; incompatible behavior to increase would be arriving to class on
Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior
! DRA is a procedure that involves extinction of a problem behavior combined with reinforcing a behavior
that is topographically dissimilar to, but not necessarily incompatible with, the problem behavior
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