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Lecture

Lecture Note For Chapter 11, come and see

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB45H3
Professor
Christian Campbell

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Chapter 11: Getting a New sequence of behaviors to occur with behavioral chaining
Behavioral Chaining
# A behavioral chain is a sequence of discriminative stimuli (S^Ds) and responses (Rs) in which each
response except the last produces the S^D for the next response and the last response is typically
followed by a reinforcer.
# Each S^D (after the first) in a behavioral chain is a conditioned reinforcer for the previous response
# Each response produces the cue for the next response until the entire chain was completed, and reinforcer
is experienced
# A chain looks like: S^D1! R1! S^D2! R2 ….--> S+
# The stimulus-response connections are the “links that hold the chain together
# If any response is so weak that it fails to be evoked by S^D preceding it, the next S^D will not be
produced and the rest of the chain will not occur; chain will be broken at the point of its weakest link;
only way in which to repair the chain is to strengthen the weak stimulus-response connection by means of
an effective training procedure
# S+ symbolized the positive reinforcer that follows the last response in the chain
# Reinforcer at the end of the chain maintains the stimuli in the chain as effective S^Ds for the response
that follow them and effective conditioned reinforcers for the response must precede them
# Examples of everyday behavioral chains: playing particular song on an instrument; making a sandwich
# Examples of everyday things that aren’t behavioral chains: studying for an exam, writing an exam and
attending the next class to get your grade: this is not made up of consistent series of stimuli and response
in which each stimuli (except the last) is a conditioned reinforcer for the previous response and an S^D
for the next response
Methods for Teaching a Behavioral Chain
# 3 major methods of teaching behavioral chain:
1) total-task presentation: learner attempts all the steps from beginning to the end of the chain on each
trial and continues with total task trials until all steps are mastered
# prompting is provided at each step as needed and a reinforcer follows correct completion of the last step
# can be used to teach kids with developmental disabilities how to brush their teeth
# advantages over other two: less time spent in partial assembly and disassembly to prepare the task for
training; it appears to focus on teaching response topography and response sequence simultaneously and
therefore should produce more results quickly; and it appears to maximize the learner’s independence
early in training, especially if some steps are already familiar to him or her- this task is better for teaching
persons with developmental disabilities
# it is the method of choice for people with no disabilities if there are simple tasks with small number of
steps
2) backward chaining: gradually constructs the chain in a reverse order from that in which chain is
performed; last step is established first, then the next-to last step is taught and linked to the last step,
then the third-from-last step is taught and linked to the last two steps and so on, progressing backwards
toward the beginning of the chain
# used in many programs such as teaching various dressing, grooming, work and verbal behavior to those
with developmental disabilities
# when one uses backward chaining, the reinforcement of the last step in the presence of the appropriate
stimulus, over trials, establishes that stimulus as a discriminative stimulus for the last step and as a
conditioned reinforcer for the next-to-last step
# when the step before the last is added, the s^D in that step also becomes a conditioned reinforcer and so
on.
# The power of the positive reinforcer that is presented at the end of the chain is transferred up the line to
each s^D as it is added to the chain
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Description
Chapter 11: Getting a New sequence of behaviors to occur with behavioral chaining Behavioral Chaining A behavioral chain is a sequence of discriminative stimuli (S^Ds) and responses (Rs) in which each response except the last produces the S^D for the next response and the last response is typically followed by a reinforcer. Each S^D (after the first) in a behavioral chain is a conditioned reinforcer for the previous response Each response produces the cue for the next response until the entire chain was completed, and reinforcer is experienced A chain looks like: S^D1 R1 S^D2 R2 .--> S+ The stimulus-response connections are the links that hold the chain together If any response is so weak that it fails to be evoked by S^D preceding it, the next S^D will not be produced and the rest of the chain will not occur; chain will be broken at the point of its weakest link; only way in which to repair the chain is to strengthen the weak stimulus-response connection by means of an effective training procedure S+ symbolized the positive reinforcer that follows the last response in the chain Reinforcer at the end of the chain maintains the stimuli in the chain as effective S^Ds for the response that follow them and effective conditioned reinforcers for the response must precede them Examples of everyday behavioral chains: playing particular song on an instrument; making a sandwich Examples of everyday things that arent behavioral chains: studying for an exam, writing an exam and attending the next class to get your grade: this is not made up of consistent series of stimuli and response in which each stimuli (except the last) is a conditioned reinforcer for the previous response and an S^D for the next response Methods for Teaching a Behavioral Chain 3 major methods of teaching behavioral chain: 1) total-task presentation: learner attempts all the steps from beginning to the end of the chain on each trial and continues with total task trials until all steps are mastered prompting is provided at each step as needed and a reinforcer follows correct completion of the last step can be used to teach kids with developmental disabilities how to brush their teeth advantages over other two: less time spent in partial assembly and disassembly to prepare the task for training; it appears to focus on teaching response topography and response sequence simultaneously and therefore should produce more results quickly; and it appears to maximize the learners independence early in training, especially if some steps are already familiar to him or her- this task is better for teaching persons with developmental disabilities it is the method of choice for people with no disabilities if there are simple tasks with small number of steps 2) backward chaining: gradually constructs the chain in a reverse order from that in which chain is performed; last step is established first, then the next-to last step is taught and linked to the last step, then the third-from-last step is taught and linked to the last two steps and so on, progressing backwards toward the beginning of the chain used in many programs such as teaching various dressing, grooming, work and verbal behavior to those with developmental disabilities when one uses backward chaining, the reinforcement of the last step in the presence of the appropriate stimulus, over trials, establishes that stimulus as a discriminative stimulus for the last step and as a conditioned reinforcer for the next-to-last step when the step before the last is added, the s^D in that step also becomes a conditioned reinforcer and so on. The power of the positive reinforcer that is presented at the end of the chain is transferred up the line to each s^D as it is added to the chain www.notesolution.com
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