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Lecture

Chapter 2


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB45H3
Professor
Zachariah Campbell

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Chapter 2: Observing and Recording
Behaviour
Types of Behavioral Assessment
` Behavioural Assessment: the measuring of behavior
` Indirect: getting information from a source besides yourself (not as accurate as direct
approaches since they are prone to faulty memory, but these approaches allow us to look at
behaviors we might not be able to otherwise)
Interviews
Questionnaires
Rating scales
` Direct: getting information yourself while the behavior is occurring (the best, most accurate
method)
Observation and recording of target behaviour in vivo
Recording Behavior
1. Define the target behavior
Identify what exactly a person does or says that constitutes a behavioural deficit or excess.
Stuart: Grade 3 student who has difficulty paying attention in class and tends to engage in
disruptive behaviour
In this scenario, Stuart is labeled as being disruptive in class (disruptive is the label, the behavior
is listed below)
Behavioral definitions (can all be objectively measured)
Getting out of his seat during class
Striking up conversation with other
Pushing objects off his desk repeatedly
Putting his hand up constantly in class
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2. Identify who, when, and where to record (the logistics of recording)
Requires close proximity
In person (in vivo)
Videotape recording
The target behaviour(s) are typically recorded by someone other than the one engaging in the
behaviour (unless the approach is self-monitoring)
In this example (of Stuart)U]}µoZZUZ[]U}ÇZ}o}P] behind a
one way mirror or in the classroom itself that records his behavior
Observation period: when the target behaviour is most likely to occur
Indirect assessment is a good starting point t at the outset of an intervention when behavior
modification is being considered, you want to know if it is worth it, so indirect assessment is a
good idea to see if the behavior occurs enough to even be worth changing
Important: Consent must }]v(}uZo]v}o]v[v}]v
Observing and recording behaviour can take place in either:
Natural settings
Benefit: Most representative sample of target behaviour can be obtained
Contrived settings
Benefit: The factors that influence behaviour are easier to manipulate (easier to
understanding the functional relationship between the behavior and the
environment)
Structured observation period: the observer coordinates the occurrence of specific events or
activities that occur during the period of observation
Unstructured observation period: no specific events, activities or instructions are given during
the period of observation
3. Choose a recording method (what to record)
` Continuous Recording
` Product Recording
` Interval Recording
` Time Sample Recording
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ÆWith Continuous Recording, one can measure:
C Frequency
C Duration
C Intensity
C Latency (the time between a given stimulus and the onset of a target behaviour)
Percentage of Opportunities: occurrence of a behaviour is recorded in relation to some other
event (e.g., response opportunity)
For example (compliance), # of teacher requests to Stuart, Stuart completed X times (e.g., 30%
compliance > 90% compliance)
ÆProduct recording
` Indirect approach (there is no observation of the behavior itself)
` Useful when there are tangible outcomes to a given behaviour
` For example, as an indices }(^µ[u]Z]ÀuvU}v}µo}Z]
completion of math problems in his workbook, instead of recording his behavior
ÆInterval recording
Observation periods are divided into smaller periods
Partial interval recording ~XPXU^µ[Çoo]vP t whether it did or did not occur in each
interval)
Whole interval recording ~XPXU^µ[µÇ]vP t how long did he study during the
interval)
Frequencytwithin-interval recording: when the observer records the frequency of a target
behaviour within consecutive intervals of time
The frequency of the behavior in each interval is recorded. This is different from partial
interval recording because in partial interval recording, the behavior is only recorded
once in each interval, even if it happened many times. The behavior either did, or did
not occur in the interval. Frequency within interval recoding is the most accurate indices
of behavior since every target behavior is recorded that is performed.
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