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Lecture 6

PSYB45H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Reinforcement


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB45H3
Professor
Jessica Dere
Lecture
6

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PSYB45
Lec06: Decreasing Behavior & Escape and Avoidance
Conditioning
Dierential Reinforcement
Dierential reinforcement: Applying reinforcement
only to a correct response
oSeveral possible applications
oA case of using reinforcement to decrease or
eliminate behaviors
INCREASING the lack of behavior
Schedules that reinforce speci*c rates of responding
Can be used to reinforce high or low rates of a response
Focus on CH12 ‘decreasing response rate’
Dierential Reinforcement of low rates
Dierential reinforcement of low rates (DRL):
Reinforcer is presented only if a particular response
occurs at a low rate
oLimited-responding DRL: Speci*es a maximum
number of responses that are allowed (제제제제 제제제 제
제제)
For when some of the behavior is tolerable
EX) Telling a child that if he gets out his
seat 3 or fewer time in an hour, he will get
play time
oSpaced-responding DRL: Speci*ed behavior
cannot occur during certain time interval; (제제제제 제
제제 제제)
For when the behavior must be spaced out
over time
EX) Getting an eager student to only
provide an answer every 15 mins
Dierential Reinforcement of zero responding
Dierential reinforcement of zero responding:
Reinforcer is presented only if the target behavior does
not occur during a speci*ed time interval
oIf the behavior occurs, clock starts over
oDi<erential reinforcement of other responding”
oThe length of the time interval should be
increased gradually
oEX) Reducing nail biting & reducing self-injurious
behaviors
Dierential reinforcement of incompatible responding
Dierential reinforcement of incompatible
responding: Like DRO, but speci*es an incompatible
alternative behavio r
oThe undesirable behavior is not possible when
engaged in the incompatible behavior
oReinforcement is given for the incompatible
behavior
Ex) reinforcing sitting in a chair to reduce
running around the classroom
Dierential reinforcement of alternate behavior
Dierential reinforcement of alternate behavior
(DRA): Extinction of a problem behavior combined with
the reinforcement of a desirable behavior
oRecall: extinction is most e<ective under this kind
of scenario
oEX) Ignoring aggressive demands from a student
and reinforcing polite communication
How To Eectively Implement Intermittent Schedules To
Decrease Behavior?
Select the most appropriate schedule for decreasing the
target behaviour
Select the reinforcer, ideally one that had been
maintaining the behaviour to be reduced
Record baseline data to help decide on the initial value
for the chosen schedule (i.e., length of initial time
interval, or number of allowed responses)
Follow relevant procedures
If possible, provide instructions/information about the
rules to the individual
Basics of operant conditioning
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