PSYB45H3 Lecture Notes - Cognitive Restructuring, Cognitive Therapy, Aaron T. Beck

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24 Apr 2012

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Chapter 25: Cognitive BM
BM is often focused on analyzing/modifying overt (observable) behaviours
o however some behaviours are covert (unobservable)
ie. the physiological response associated with fear/anxiety
aka cognitive behaviour
however term ‘cognitive’ is not favored in behaviour analysis for a variety of reasons
however widely used inclinical psychology and behaviour therapy
Examples of Cognitive BM
o anger
o paying attention (ADD, ADHD)
Defining Cognitive BM
o procedures are used to help ppl change behaviour that are labeled as cognitive
o Cognitive Behaviour
identify and define in objective terms the behaviour
b/c cognitive behaviours are covert, they cannot be observed directly and recorded by an independent observer
rather tha person engaging in the cognitive behaviour must identify the occurrence of specific thoughts or self-statements
b/c they are covert
‘verbal or imaginal responses made by the person that are covert’
solving problems
evaluating themselves
we must work with client to objectively define the behaviour
ie. specific thoughts she thinks at a particular time
a label for the behaviour is not a behavioural definition
o ie. saying a person has low self-esteem (label)
o ie. negative self- statements of I’m fat, nobody likes me etc (cognitive behaviour)
cognitive behaviours that are TBs in BM include behavioural excesses and behavioural deficits
o Functions of Cognitive Behaviour
can be distressing to the person
may function as a CS that elicits an unpleasant CR
ie. fearful thoughts, angry thoughts
can function as a discriminative stimulus (SD) for desirable behaviours
ie. reciting a rule/self-instruction may help person engage in a desirable behaviour
o ie. turn left on queen
can function as motivating operations that influence the power of consequences to function as reinforcers/punishers
ie. how we talk to ourselves about events in our lives may change the value of those events as reinforcers/punishers
ie. if you think your boss is a rotten person, his praise won’t mean much vs. if you like him, praise will mean a lot
can function as reinforcing/punishing consequences when they follow some other behaviour
ie praise/critical statements made by a person can serve as reinforcers/punishers for the person’s own behaviour
o In this chapter, term thought is used to refer to a cognitive behaviour (thinking, self-statements, self-talk)
Cognitive BM Procedures
o used to help ppl change cognitive behaviours
o some designed to replace specific maladaptive cognitive behaviours with more adaptive ones
cognitive restructuring
used in the case of behavioural excesses
o when maladaptive cognitive behaviours contribute to a problem
therapist helps client identify cognitive behaviours that are distressing then helps client get ride of these thoughts or
replace them with more desirable thoughts
distressing thoughts
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