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PSYB45H3 (337)
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Lecture

Chapter 25

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB45H3
Professor
zachariah

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Chapter 25: Cognitive BM
BM is often focused on analyzing/modifying overt (observable) behaviours
o however some behaviours are covert (unobservable)
ie. the physiological response associated with fear/anxiety
aka cognitive behaviour
however term ‘cognitive’ is not favored in behaviour analysis for a variety of reasons
however widely used inclinical psychology and behaviour therapy
Examples of Cognitive BM
o anger
o paying attention (ADD, ADHD)
Defining Cognitive BM
o procedures are used to help ppl change behaviour that are labeled as cognitive
o Cognitive Behaviour
identify and define in objective terms the behaviour
b/c cognitive behaviours are covert, they cannot be observed directly and recorded by an independent observer
rather tha person engaging in the cognitive behaviour must identify the occurrence of specific thoughts or self-statements
b/c they are covert
‘verbal or imaginal responses made by the person that are covert’
examples
thinking
talking
solving problems
evaluating themselves
planning
imagining
we must work with client to objectively define the behaviour
ie. specific thoughts she thinks at a particular time
a label for the behaviour is not a behavioural definition
o ie. saying a person has low self-esteem (label)
o ie. negative self- statements of I’m fat, nobody likes me etc (cognitive behaviour)
cognitive behaviours that are TBs in BM include behavioural excesses and behavioural deficits
o Functions of Cognitive Behaviour
can be distressing to the person
may function as a CS that elicits an unpleasant CR
ie. fearful thoughts, angry thoughts
can function as a discriminative stimulus (SD) for desirable behaviours
ie. reciting a rule/self-instruction may help person engage in a desirable behaviour
o ie. turn left on queen
can function as motivating operations that influence the power of consequences to function as reinforcers/punishers
ie. how we talk to ourselves about events in our lives may change the value of those events as reinforcers/punishers
ie. if you think your boss is a rotten person, his praise won’t mean much vs. if you like him, praise will mean a lot
can function as reinforcing/punishing consequences when they follow some other behaviour
ie praise/critical statements made by a person can serve as reinforcers/punishers for the person’s own behaviour
o In this chapter, term thought is used to refer to a cognitive behaviour (thinking, self-statements, self-talk)
Cognitive BM Procedures
o used to help ppl change cognitive behaviours
o some designed to replace specific maladaptive cognitive behaviours with more adaptive ones
cognitive restructuring
used in the case of behavioural excesses
o when maladaptive cognitive behaviours contribute to a problem
therapist helps client identify cognitive behaviours that are distressing then helps client get ride of these thoughts or
replace them with more desirable thoughts
distressing thoughts

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Description
Chapter 25: Cognitive BM  BM is often focused on analyzing/modifying overt (observable) behaviours o however some behaviours are covert (unobservable)  ie. the physiological response associated with fear/anxiety  aka cognitive behaviour  however term ‘cognitive’ is not favored in behaviour analysis for a variety of reasons  however widely used inclinical psychology and behaviour therapy  Examples of Cognitive BM o anger o paying attention (ADD, ADHD)  Defining Cognitive BM o procedures are used to help ppl change behaviour that are labeled as cognitive o Cognitive Behaviour  identify and define in objective terms the behaviour  b/c cognitive behaviours are covert, they cannot be observed directly and recorded by an independent observer  rather tha person engaging in the cognitive behaviour must identify the occurrence of specific thoughts or self-statements b/c they are covert  ‘verbal or imaginal responses made by the person that are covert’  examples  thinking  talking  solving problems  evaluating themselves  planning  imagining  we must work with client to objectively define the behaviour  ie. specific thoughts she thinks at a particular time  a label for the behaviour is not a behavioural definition o ie. saying a person has low self-esteem (label) o ie. negative self- statements of  I’m fat, nobody likes me etc (cognitive behaviour)  cognitive behaviours that are TBs in BM include behavioural excesses and behavioural deficits o Functions of Cognitive Behaviour  can be distressing to the person  may function as a CS that elicits an unpleasant CR  ie. fearful thoughts, angry thoughts  can function as a discriminative stimulus (SD) for desirable behaviours  ie. reciting a rule/self-instruction may help person engage in a desirable behaviour o ie. turn left on queen  can function as motivating operations that influence the power of consequences to function as reinforcers/punishers  ie. how we talk to ourselves about events in our lives may change the value of those events as reinforcers/punishers  ie. if you think your boss is a rotten person, his praise won’t mean much vs. if you like him, praise will mean a lot  can function as reinforcing/punishing consequences when they follow some other behaviour  ie praise/critical statements made by a person can serve as reinforcers/punishers for the person’s own behaviour o In this chapter, term thought is used to refer to a cognitive behaviour (thinking, self-statements, self-talk)  Cognitive BM Procedures o used to help ppl change cognitive behaviours o some designed to replace specific maladaptive cognitive behaviours with more adaptive ones  cognitive restructuring  used in the case of behavioural excesses o when maladaptive cognitive behaviours contribute to a problem  therapist helps client identify cognitive behaviours that are distressing then helps client get ride of these thoughts or replace them with more desirable thoughts  distressing thoughts o might be those that elicit emotional responses  ie. fear, anxiety, anger o might be those associated with unpleasant moods, problem behaviours, poor performance  3 basic steps o Helping the client identify the distressing thoughts and the situations in which they occur  ask client  relies on client’s memory  have client self-monitor  write a description of the situation as they occur o Helping the client identify the emotional response, unpleasant mood, or problem behavioiur that follows the distressing thought  client can see how the distressing thought is an antecedent to the unpleasant emotional response, mood, or problem behaviour  relies on memory or self-monitoring (data sheet) o Helping the client stop thinking the distressing thoughts by helping the client think more rational or desirable thoughts  when thinking rational/desirable thoughts, client is less likely to have negative emotional responses or to engage in problem behaviours  however not easy  cognitive restructuring typically done by psychologists or other professionals with specific training  therapist challenges the client’s distressing thoughts by asking questions that make the client analyze the logic or rationality of the thoughts or interpret the situation differently  Cognitive Therapy o there are different variations of cognitive restructuring  rational-emotive therapy  systematic rational restructuring  cognitive therapy  which this chapter focuses on o David Burns provides description of cognitive therapy for depression based on the work of Aaron Beck  Burns uses cognitive therapy, a form of cognitive restructuring  ppl who are depressed engage in fewer reinforcing activities than they used to and engage in a type of distorted thinking in which they negatively evaluate or interpret events in their lives  therapy  first get person to engage in more reinforcing activities  use cognitive restructuring to help the person change his/her distorted thinking
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