4.Reinforce the desirable behavior immediately and consistently: A behavior
that is reinforced on a continuous reinforcement schedule at least initially is
more likely to increase to the desirable level.
5.Eliminate reinforcement for the undesirable behaviors: must identify and
eliminate the reinforcement for the undesirable behaviors.
6.Use intermittent reinforcement to maintain target behavior: continuous
reinforcement is used in the early stages of DRA.
Intermittent reinforcement maintains the desirable behavior over time by making it
more resistant to extinction.
7.Program for generalization: target behavior should occur outside the training
situation in all relevant stimulus situations. The target behavior should be
differentially reinforced in as many relevant situations as possible, by as
many relevant people as possible, to program for generalization.
Using differential negative reinforcement of alternative behaviors
When differential reinforcement is used successfully, the desirable behavior should
increase and the undesirable behavior should decrease.
DNRA had been used in a variety of studies to decrease problem behaviors that are
maintained by negative reinforcement and to increase appropriate behaviors to
replace the problem behaviors.
Variations of DRA
Differential reinforcement of an imcompatible behavior: the alternative
behavior is physically imcompatible with the problem behavior and therefore the
two behaviors cannot occur at the same time. Alternative behavior that is reinforced
to replace the problem behavior is a communication response. Consists of
differential reinforcement of communication (DRC) but its called
communication training. the individual with the problem behavior learns to
make a communication response that is functionally equivalent to the problem
behavior. An individual with a problem behavior reinforced by attention would learn
to ask for attention. An individual with a problem behavior reinforced by escape
from a particular situation would learn to ask for a break from the situation.
Research on DRA
The researchers conduct a functional analysis to identify the reinforcer for the
problem behavior exhibited by students with developmental disabilities in
classroom settings. A child’s problem behavior is reinforced by attention the child is
taugh to ask for attention as an alternative response. This communication behavior
increases and the problem behavior decreases. If the problem behavior is reinforced
by escape when difficult academic material is presented, the child is taught to ask