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Lecture

Ch 15 notes

5 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB45H3
Professor
Zachariah Campbell

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Ch 15-b45
Differential reinforcement procedures which involve applying reinforcement and
extinction to increase the occurrence of a desirable target behvavior or to decrease
the occurrence of undesirable behaviors.
Differential reinforcement of alternative behavior
it is a behavioral procedure used to increase the frequency of a desirable behavior
and to decrease the frequency of undesirable behaviors.
DRA involves combining reinforcement for a desirable behavior and extinction of
undesirable behaviors.
DRA is an effective way to increase a desirable behavior because, by decreasing an
interfering behavior through extinction, it creates an opportunity for the desirable
behavior to occur and be reinforced.
When to use DRA
DRA is a procedure for strengthening a desirable behavior. However the desirable
behavior must be occurring at least occasionally. As shaping or prompting are used
initially to evoke the behavior, DRA may then be used to streghten and maintain the
behavior. Must be able to identify a reinforce that you can use each time. If you
cannot identify a reinforce or if you have no control over the reinforce you cannot use
DRA.
How to use DRA
1.Define desirable behavior: a clear definition of the desirable behavior helps
ensure that you are reinforcing the correct behavior and allows you to record
the behavior to determine whether treatment is successful.
2.Define the undesirable behaviors:a clear behavioral definition of the
undesirable behaviors helps ensure that you are not using reinforcement
when the undesirable behaviors occurs. Record the undesirable behaviors to
determine whether they decrease after DRA.
3.Identify the reinforcer: reinforcers may be different for different people. It is
important to determine a reinforce specific to the person with whom you are
working. Use the reinforce that is currently maintaining the undesirable
behavior, you already know that this reinforce is effective.
Premack principle: use the opportunity to engage in high frequency or preferred
behavior as a reinforce for a low frenquency behavior.
Make each potential reinforce contingent on an operant response. If the frequency or
duration of the response increases when a stimulus is contingent on the response
you have demonstrated that the stimulus is a reinforcer.
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4.Reinforce the desirable behavior immediately and consistently: A behavior
that is reinforced on a continuous reinforcement schedule at least initially is
more likely to increase to the desirable level.
5.Eliminate reinforcement for the undesirable behaviors: must identify and
eliminate the reinforcement for the undesirable behaviors.
6.Use intermittent reinforcement to maintain target behavior: continuous
reinforcement is used in the early stages of DRA.
Intermittent reinforcement maintains the desirable behavior over time by making it
more resistant to extinction.
7.Program for generalization: target behavior should occur outside the training
situation in all relevant stimulus situations. The target behavior should be
differentially reinforced in as many relevant situations as possible, by as
many relevant people as possible, to program for generalization.
Using differential negative reinforcement of alternative behaviors
When differential reinforcement is used successfully, the desirable behavior should
increase and the undesirable behavior should decrease.
DNRA had been used in a variety of studies to decrease problem behaviors that are
maintained by negative reinforcement and to increase appropriate behaviors to
replace the problem behaviors.
Variations of DRA
Differential reinforcement of an imcompatible behavior: the alternative
behavior is physically imcompatible with the problem behavior and therefore the
two behaviors cannot occur at the same time. Alternative behavior that is reinforced
to replace the problem behavior is a communication response. Consists of
differential reinforcement of communication (DRC) but its called
communication training. the individual with the problem behavior learns to
make a communication response that is functionally equivalent to the problem
behavior. An individual with a problem behavior reinforced by attention would learn
to ask for attention. An individual with a problem behavior reinforced by escape
from a particular situation would learn to ask for a break from the situation.
Research on DRA
The researchers conduct a functional analysis to identify the reinforcer for the
problem behavior exhibited by students with developmental disabilities in
classroom settings. A childs problem behavior is reinforced by attention the child is
taugh to ask for attention as an alternative response. This communication behavior
increases and the problem behavior decreases. If the problem behavior is reinforced
by escape when difficult academic material is presented, the child is taught to ask
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Description
Ch 15-b45 Differential reinforcement procedures which involve applying reinforcement and extinction to increase the occurrence of a desirable target behvavior or to decrease the occurrence of undesirable behaviors. Differential reinforcement of alternative behavior it is a behavioral procedure used to increase the frequency of a desirable behavior and to decrease the frequency of undesirable behaviors. DRA involves combining reinforcement for a desirable behavior and extinction of undesirable behaviors. DRA is an effective way to increase a desirable behavior because, by decreasing an interfering behavior through extinction, it creates an opportunity for the desirable behavior to occur and be reinforced. When to use DRA DRA is a procedure for strengthening a desirable behavior. However the desirable behavior must be occurring at least occasionally. As shaping or prompting are used initially to evoke the behavior, DRA may then be used to streghten and maintain the behavior. Must be able to identify a reinforce that you can use each time. If you cannot identify a reinforce or if you have no control over the reinforce you cannot use DRA. How to use DRA 1. Define desirable behavior: a clear definition of the desirable behavior helps ensure that you are reinforcing the correct behavior and allows you to record the behavior to determine whether treatment is successful. 2. Define the undesirable behaviors:a clear behavioral definition of the undesirable behaviors helps ensure that you are not using reinforcement when the undesirable behaviors occurs. Record the undesirable behaviors to determine whether they decrease after DRA. 3. Identify the reinforcer: reinforcers may be different for different people. It is important to determine a reinforce specific to the person with whom you are working. Use the reinforce that is currently maintaining the undesirable behavior, you already know that this reinforce is effective. Premack principle: use the opportunity to engage in high frequency or preferred behavior as a reinforce for a low frenquency behavior. Make each potential reinforce contingent on an operant response. If the frequency or duration of the response increases when a stimulus is contingent on the response you have demonstrated that the stimulus is a reinforcer. www.notesolution.com
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