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Lecture

Chapter 19 txtbook notes

8 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB45H3
Professor
Zachariah Campbell

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Chapter 19: Promoting Generalization
Programming for generalization increases the likelihood that the behaviour change
will occur in all relevant situations or circumstances
Examples of Generalization Programming
Mrs. William rarely engage in positive conversation when using DRA to increase
positive conversation to promote generalization of that behaviour ALL staff
were taught to use DRA & to use it at all time and prompted other residents to
ignore problem behaviour & focus on positive behaviour
oGeneralization occurs because ALL relevant people carried out DRA as planned
Marcia learning assertiveness skills generalization of this behaviour is defined
as occurrence of an appropriate assertive response to any unreasonable request
made by a co-worker
oDid this by teaching her respond to wide range of possible unreasonable
requests & made role-playing more difficult progressively by becoming more
persistent w/ the unreasonable request
Failure of generalization w/ couch training the kid to hit the ball but couldnt hit
the ball in an actual game because the training stimuli were not similar enough
to stimuli in the criterion situation (real game) for the behaviour to generalize to
criterion situation
oCould make kid hit balls form various pitchers during practice
Defining Generalization
Defined as the occurrence of the behaviour in the presence of stimuli that are
similar in some way to the S that was present during the training a class
of stimuli develops stimulus control over the behaviour
In BM it is defined as the occurrence of the behaviour in the presence of all
relevant stimuli outside the training situation
oIt is very important in these procedures to make sure target behaviour
occur outside training and to all relevant stimuli
oExample: if Trevor could hit for various pitcher generalization has
occurred
www.notesolution.com
Strategies of Promoting Generalization of Behaviour Change
Outlining few strategies
Reinforcing Occurrences of Generalization
To promote generalization is to reinforce the behaviour when generalization
occurs - means to reinforce behaviour when it occurs outside the training
situation in the presence of relevant stimuli
oAll relevant stimuli develops stimulus control over the behaviour
oE.g.: parenting skills researchers conducting training sessions in the
homes & provided reinforcers when they did the correct behaviour
Reinforcing instances of generalization is (perhaps) the most straightforward
approach to promoting generalization
o this strategy blurs the distinction between training and generalization
conditions because training occurs in all relevant situations
Drawback: not always possible to provide reinforcement for the behaviour
outside the training situations
oE.g.: cannot go inside to parents home most of time to provide reinforcers
to good parenting skill exhibited there
Training Skills That Tap into Natural Contingencies of Reinforcement
Another strategy: to train skills that will result in natural contingencies of
reinforcement in relevant situations
o important if trainers cannot provide reinforcement outside training
situations that there is natural reinforcers to be present
oE.g.: teaching dating skills to shy adolescents it is important to teach to
approaches other members of sex that will respond favourably thus; the
skills will be reinforced in relevant situations in the natural environment
Because they will result in pleasant interaction and dates
Drawback: Not always possible
www.notesolution.com
oE.g.: When teaching sign language to nonspeaking students ; others who
dont know sign language will not respond in such way that reinforce the
use of signs by these students
When skill are NOT NATURALLY REINFORCED outside the training situation , OTHER
STRATEGIES must be implemented
Modifying Natural Contingencies of Reinforcement & Punishment
When the above 2 strategies cannot be used generalization may be
promoted by modifying the contingencies of reinforcement in the relevant
situations
oE.g.: w/ Mrs. Williams in nursing home every staff from the nursing
home reinforced Mrs. Williams positive conversations ( natural
reinforcement: positive interaction but modified since everyone was
instructed to do so)
One way generalize doesnt work if the desirable behaviour is punished
outside the training situation thus have eliminate any punishment
contingency that would suppress the desirable behaviour outside the training
situation
oE.g.: integrate disable students into regular classroom taught the her
normal students to interact well w/ these new disable kids but they
were made fun of for doing this outside by other kids from other classroom
thus; their interactions w/ the new kids in the classroom decreased
To promote interaction as before taught need to get rid of the
punishment contingency to eliminate mean comments from other
kids in other classroom
Incorporating a Variety of Relevant Stimulus Situations in Training
To promote generalization is to incorporate many of relevant situations into
the training - as training the learner to respond to sufficient stimulus
exemplars (Stokes & Baer)
oLogic: if learner is trained to respond to a range of relevant stimulus
situation the behaviour is more likely to generalized to all those stimulus
situation outside the training
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 19: Promoting Generalization Programming for generalization increases the likelihood that the behaviour change will occur in all relevant situations or circumstances Examples of Generalization Programming Mrs. William rarely engage in positive conversat ionwhen using DRA to increase positive conversation to promote generalization of that behaviour ALL staff were taught to use DRA & to use it at all time and prompted other residents to ignore problem behaviour & focus on positive behaviour o Generalization occurs because ALL relevant people carried out DRA as planned Marcia learning assertiveness skills generalization of this behaviour is defined as occurrence of an appropriate assertive response to any unreasonable request made by a co-worker o Did this by teaching her respond to wide range of possible unreasonable requests & made role-playing more difficult progressively by becoming more persistent w the unreasonable request Failure of generalization w couch training the kid to hit the ball but couldnt hit the ball in an actual game because the training stimuli were not similar enough to stimuli in the criterion situation (real game) for the behaviour to generalize to criterion situation o Could make kid hit balls form various pitchers during practice Defining Generalization Defined as the occurrence of the behaviour in the presence of stimuli that are similar in some way to the S that was present during the training a class of stimuli develops stimulus control over the behaviour In BM it is defined as the occurrence of the behaviour in the presence of all relevant stimuli outside the training situation o It is very important in these procedures to make sure target behaviour occur outside training and to all relevant stimuli o Example: if Trevor could hit for various pitcher generalization has occurred www.notesolution.com
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