PSYB51H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 11: Spinothalamic Tract, Somatotopic Arrangement, Spinal Cord

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Published on 19 Apr 2013
School
UTSC
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB51H3
PSYB51
November 26th, 2010
Lecture 11: Touch
- Acoustic energy in a sound for a speech (i.e. vowels)
- Formants: they’re peaks in the frequency spectrum of that sound. Vowels
are harmonic sounds with these very regular intervals of high energy
frequency levels going in regular steps (e.g. 200 Hz, 300 Hz...& so on)
At least 3 formants for a vowel! = 3 peaks where you’ve maximum
energy
A vowel is not identified by the pitch, so not by the fundamental
frequency itself but rather where these formants are relative to the
fundamental frequency and relative to each other
- Formants are good for distinguishing between different vowels; helps us
with perceiving speech essentially!
- Touch: e.g. such as
vibrations
- Proprioception:
kinaesthetic receptors in our
muscles, tendons, and joints;
these receptors are also sensing
mechanical displacements
essentially
- Haptics: when you use
touch in an active way!
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PSYB51
November 26th, 2010
- Attributes:
Receptive field: for which
1 receptor would be
responsible/sensitive for
Rate of adaptation: slow
or fast depending on the
receptor so we pick out diff.
information that way
What are mechanoreceptors?
Mechanoreceptors are sensory receptors that are
responsive to mechanical stimulation, such as
pressure and vibration.
- So all these receptors have the same type of
stimulation: mechanical displacements
- BUT > they have diff. receptive fields and diff.
rates of adaptation
FA I: the Meissner corpuscles
sense skin slip; if you hold a cup
(surface of it) and it’s sliding
through your hands b/c you
aren’t holding it tight enough =
these cause low-frequency
vibrations
So that’s what these receptors
are most sensitive to!
FA II: Pacinian corpuscle
these receptors sense quick changes in terms of vibrations (e.g. your finger hits a surface)
so the first impact is coded as high frequency = first contact
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PSYB51
November 26th, 2010
SA I: Merkel complex senses spatial details, textures...etc [other’s listed on slide] = they’re
sensitive to lower frequencies! = someone that reads Braille will mostly rely on these
receptors!
SA II: Ruffini endings sense lateral stretch (when your skin gets stretched e.g. when you
grasp for something); gives you an idea about what the shape of the hand is!
Not useful for reading Braille
- These receptors
don’t sit in the skin
itself...they’re found within
muscles, tendons and
joints!
What is the role of the
muscle spindle?
The muscle spindle is a
sensory receptor located
in a muscle that senses
its tension. The sensory
response from the spindle
is sent back to the central
nervous system, conveying
information about muscle length and thus regulating muscle tension.
- Based on if a muscle is contracting or relaxing, muscle spindles give you an idea
about position of the body part is in space (e.g. arm) relative to rest of the body
- Neurons (alpha and gamma motor fibres) innervate the muscles, making it
contract/relax
- Additional fibres: Sensory fibres respond quite well to vibrations
- So these receptors (muscle spindle) found in muscles, tendons, and joints!
This lateral stretch is very important for you to
control so as to be able to grasp stably!
Name and describe the two types of
thermoreceptors:
The two types of thermoreceptors are
warmth fibers and cold fibers. Warmth
fibers are sensory nerves that fire when
skin temperature increases, and cold
fibers are sensory nerves that fire when
skin temperature decreases.
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Document Summary

Acoustic energy in a sound for a speech (i. e. vowels) Formants: they"re peaks in the frequency spectrum of that sound. Vowels are harmonic sounds with these very regular intervals of high energy frequency levels going in regular steps (e. g. 200 hz, 300 hz& so on) At least 3 formants for a vowel! A vowel is not identified by the pitch, so not by the fundamental frequency itself but rather where these formants are relative to the fundamental frequency and relative to each other. Formants are good for distinguishing between different vowels; helps us with perceiving speech essentially! touch in an active way! Proprioception: kinaesthetic receptors in our muscles, tendons, and joints; these receptors are also sensing mechanical displacements essentially. Rate of adaptation: slow or fast depending on the receptor so we pick out diff. information that way. Mechanoreceptors are sensory receptors that are responsive to mechanical stimulation, such as pressure and vibration.

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