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Lecture 3

PSYB51H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Cranial Nerves, Brainstem, Vitalism


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB51H3
Professor
Matthias Niemeier
Lecture
3

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Magnitude Estimation
o Method of constant stimuli
o A psychophysical method in which many stimuli ranging from rarely to almost
always perceivable (or rarely to almost always perceivably different from a
reference stimulus), are presented one at a time
o Participants respond to each presentation with a yes/no or same/different
o Method of limits
o A psychophysical method in which the particular dimension of a stimulus, or the
difference between two stimuli, is varied incrementally until the participant
responds differently
o Method of adjustment
o A method of limits in which the subject controls the change in stimulus
o Magnitude estimation
o Participants are asked to assign values according to perceived magnitudes of
stimuli
o Cross-modality matching method
o Matching intensities/magnitudes of sensations that come from different
modalities
o Steven (1906-1973)
o Asked participants to assign values according to perceived magnitudes of stimuli
to measure sensation
o He found exceptions to Fechner’s law
Biology of Perception
o Doctrine of specific nerve energies (Muller, 1801-1858)
o A doctrine stating that the nature of a sensation depends on which sensory
fibers are stimulated, not on how fibers are stimulated
o Vitalism
o The belief that special “vital forces” drive living organism
o Cranial nerves
o Twelve pairs of nerves that originate in the brain stem and reach the periphery
through openings in the skull
Olfactory (I) nerves
Optic (II) nerves
Oculomotor (III) nerves
Trochlear (IV) nerves
Abducens (VI) nerves
Auditory (VIII) nerves
o Hemholtz (1821-1894)
o Studied activity of neurons and how fast they transmit signals
(Slow) speed of nerves contradicted vitalism
o Synapse
o The junction between neurons that permits information transfer
o Neurotransmitter
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