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Lecture 2

PSYB57H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Piggy Bank, Cognitive Psychology, Neurophysiology

Course Code
George Cree

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Memory & Cognition Lecture 2
Slide 4
- Many definition to what cognition is
- Want to understand how these things happen to be able to study them in a
scientific way
Slide 5
- Some cognitive psychologists will become experts at one of these subjects
- There are different way to study these things
- Different ways of achieving the goals of studying these mental processes
- How do we memorize?
- How does out attention and concentration get pulled from on are to another?
- Why do we get distracted?
- How do we make decisions?
Slide 6
- Why is this hard for us?
o Not easy to do this
o You tend to move your hands to describe the notion
o Why is it easier to describe with hand motions?
Slide 7
- How do you decide which ways to go?
o Some people will ask people
o Some people will use a map
o There are a billion different ways to find that info out
Side 9
- Does this make sense?
o No
Slide 10
- Why does this make sense?
o There is logic in the question
o But not much has changed in this question…. Why do we understand
Understand it through context
We understand that if you shake a piggy bank and it makes no
sound there is no money
)f people don’t know what a piggy bank is or the concept
of this, this wont make sense to them
- This sentence with one or 2 changes, changes the whole meaning
Slide 11
- When we think of the precursors to cognitive psych can look at this pre 20th
century history
- Aristotle…. (ow do we unify information and how do we make them into
specific groups
- Descartes…. )s the mind different from the body? )s the physical different
from the mental?... Lot of debates about this… is there a soul this makes it
separate from the body?.... no answer to any of these
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- Locke… Age-old question of is intelligence genetic or is it based on the
- Ebbinghaus… This is a big focus of this course… how are memories stored?
o Memory isn’t a VCR or PVR to record things in exact manner
o Memory systems are generally updated
o Memories are no reliable
o Why is memory generally accurate and not fully accurate?
o Why do we only store some memories and how do we retrieve
memory that is stored?
Slide 12
- Beginning of psychology
- Started with introspection
o The idea that we can observe our own actions and thoughts and study
what is going on
o Beginning of lets observe what’s going on and explain it
Slide 13
- Introspection is not always accurate
- A lot of time you cant explain own thoughts, they are unexplainable or
- Difficult to study those ideas
- Everything is impossible to test objectively
- If I watch somebody do something, I can explain what they are doing without
being biased by their thoughts
o This is what objectivity is
Slide 14
- Behaviorism rose to be the area of psychology that was observable…
o Forget what happens in the black box… lets measure the observability
of behavior
- Really mental states can be reduced into behavior
- Behaviorism
o Look at these things, measure them and be able to say this does x
this does y and that is my explanation for them, forget the thoughts
Slide 15
- A lot of time behavior does have a mental cause
o Different stimuli elicit the same behavior sometimes
o We can look it at from the flip side and say the same stimulus may
elicit different behaviors
o There is not a 1 to 1 relationship between stimuli and behavior
Slide 16
- Problems with behaviors allowed us to come to cognitive resolution
- Learned that introspective methods are not scientific and they are subjective
and not objectively study-able
- We cant just get rid of mental events like we were hoping to
- Someone’s emotions do take part in an event
Slide 17
- Transcendental method
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o Work backwards from observations to determine cause
- Think of it like a police detective
o Have all of this evidence that you can study and as you study this, you
can build what the cause was or the crime
o Can look at the crime scene and study all the evidence there and work
o This same analogy works with what we do in cognitive psychology
Slide 18
- Measurements that we can take is when we change the stimulus and see the
- Build hypothesis based on the metal event and then we can design a new
experiment to see if we can reject or fail to reject the hypothesis
o Fail to reject=good
o Reject… need a new hypothesis
Slide 19
- (1) Psychophysics, experimental psych, and a lot of behavioral type research
-  Computational analysis… Can start to model what we think is going on
o What we are looking at right now is if we can model out the brain and
know what is happening in the brain and figuring out patterns
- (3) Evidence from neuropsychology, animal neurophysiology and imaging
o Doing something that is observing the brains activity as the behavior
is occurring
o fMRI, EG, Electrodes being stuck to your head and seeing change in
brain waves
Slide 20
- The world contains information for humans to process
Slide 21
- The less likely it is, the more information it coveys
- Example:
o )f you ask someone hey how are you doing, and they say hey im fine…
doesn’t convey a lot of information
o Ouch, its awful, stubbed my toe and dropped phone in the toilet… this
is an unlikely event but it also convey a lot of information
Slide 22
- Limitation to the idea of information of processing and how it is processed
- Time limitation
o Takes time for us to process the information
o Not something that happened immediately
- Capacity limit
o Capacity is limited depending on the time limit
- How do we figure out if there is a capacity limit?
Slide 24
- Filter Model
o Says that we have input channels (senses) and they come into short
term memory and as they come into short term memory there is a
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