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Lecture 3

PSYB57H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Medial Longitudinal Fissure, Phineas Gage, Frontal Lobe

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George Cree

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PSYB57 Lecture 3
Slide 2
- What he goes through in the lecture is the extent that we should know about
the brain
- The whole idea of certain areas of the brain could control certain processes
led to more research
- A lot of people today believe that certain functions are localized in specific
areas of the brain
- (owever, many functions are controlled by many areas… so if we pin point a
specific place for a function, it doesn’t mean that that’s the only function that
part of the brain has or that that function is only localized to that part of the
Slide 3
- Franz
o Concluded that a different area of the brain could pick up the function
that the damaged area disrupted
- Lashley
o Suggested that learning was directly proportional to the damage itself
rather than the location of the damage
Slide 4
- 2 film strips
o Brain lit up means that there is some kind of activity in the brain
o Left strip… someone is looking at pictures
Would say that thinking about those pictures is happening in
that area
o Right strip… this is somebody thinking about the pictures
See that the same areas of the brain light up but obviously it is
not as active
o What this says is that:
There are localizations of function in terms of specific
processes and this doesn’t mean that that’s not the only thing
happening there
We also see that the brain is efficient
Not like there is 2 different areas for these 2 different
There is overlap
Slide 5
- Some of Lashley’s formula is not exactly true
- However, we can see some evidence of other parts of the brain taking on the
function of other parts of the brain so there is flexibility
- Evidence that if you are visually impaired and you are touching something
instead, the areas that are associated with vision light up
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Slide 8
- This is what the human brain looks like
- Surface are is large and it is broken up into sections
Slide 9
- Subcortical Areas of the Brain
o Forebrain
o Hindbrain
o Brainstem
Slide 12
- We have major fissures in the brain
o Common ridges are the right hemisphere and the left hemisphere… so
this is the longitudinal fissure
- Central fissure… ear to ear
o Divides the front and back of the brain… anterior and posterior
- Lateral fissure…
o Divides up the frontal and temporal lobes
Slide 13
- These are the areas of the brain
Slide 14
- This is the area that we think of being highly devolved in humans
Slide 15
- Receives sensory input
Slide 16
- Associated with speech, hearing, and certain types of memory
Slide 17
- Where the visual cortex is in the brain
Slide 18
- In charge of learned activities
Slide 19
- In China, a 24 year old woman was found to not have a cerebellum
- This defies a lot of theories of the brain
- How did someone without this part of the brain develop until the age of 24?
- After more research, her parents said that she took a while to walk, she
wasn’t able to form words and speak until 6 or 7
o BUT she was able to do it
o The developments were delayed but she could do it
o She still has difficulties with balance
- No one knows what her prognosis is…
- It is a really good indicator of how plastic the brain is (meaning how different
parts of the brain took on the role of the cerebellum even with its non-
existence)… it also highlights how much we DON’T know
- As much as we know about it nowadays, the brain is a mystery
Slide 20
- Maintains life without thinking
o Means that you don’t have to think about breathing and digesting,,,
they just happen
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