PSYB57 Lec 1.doc

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Published on 22 Apr 2012
School
UTSC
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB57H3
Professor
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PSYB57 - Lec 1
More emphasis on material covered both in lecture and textbook
Video 1:
-Cognitive psycholigist deal with how people deal with thoughts = cognitive said people
think, commute = cognitive processes are important (behaviourists didn’t think it was)
-Using computer to study the mind b/c it process patterns are similar
Herb Simon won nobel prize in economics
Cognitive scientists brought back = study of the mind, behaviourist had no time for it
-Mental constructs were important
Info processing approach for studying mind = mind like a computer, can have a different
language as how info is processed by mind, channels, info traveling thorugh channels,
info changing
-Orginally computer metaphor to brainmetaphor (current)
Difference b/w mathematical model (more numbers, trying to find formula to define be-
haviour) and symbolic model (more variables, higher level, more complex = rules of ma-
nipulation)
Cognitive psychology = study of the mind, goal is to get system to produce human be-
haviours
1967 - birth of cognitive psaychology
attention experiment - when were having convo with other person, able to block out
evrything else and focus on the person
-cherry found that if someone in the room mentions ur name, u notice it
-somehow this info got thru the filter and sumhow we were able to attend to it
even tho we were having a convo already
-invention of computers allowed psychologists to use this to help them in re-
search
1956 - darmouith conference, where they discussed how computers cud be used to help
1958- first person to use a flow diagram to help describe something about psychology
1957 - skinner tried to explain language learning thru social mechanisms
1959 - chomsky wrote a criticism about skinners book and totally disproved everything
skiner was saying
cognitive neuroscience is ppl who are trying to understand the brain using cognitivie
constructs
congnitive psychologist is ppl who are trying to understand the mind and how cognitive
constructs are made using the brain, its the opposite of the neuroscienceitsts
Structure of neuron
Need to familiar with brain regions = occipital lobe (vision), temperal (language, memo-
ry, sound base process), anterior temporal lobe (knowledge), frontal (reasoning, plan-
ning, personality)
2 visual pathways
Broca’s area = speech production, Wernicke = speech comphrension
Subcorical areas = amygdala (emotional processing), cerebellum (fine moter move-
ments), thalamus (integration of info), hippocampus (learning, autobiographical memo-
ry), corpus collosum = connects 2 hemisphere
Methods for studying cognition:
millisecond = 1 thousandth of a second
1) behavioural measures = main one,
-Reaction time = simple RT (get person to respond to a stimulus, measure time, no de-
cision making) VS choice RT (2 different stimuli appear at the same time and person
has to respond approiately = takes more time) = still widely used
-Sternberg Search Task = people are given list of numbers to remember and then given
number and asked if the number was in the list, graph = size of memory set VS re-
sponse time (takes longer to response for larger memory set)
-Interesting graph b/c the increase is consistent (reading numbers in a line), takes 30
secs to make comparison, takes additional 30 secs for each extra number added to list
-Serial exhuastive search
-Representation = manner the way info is sorted in a listji
-Takes more energy to stop or start search process rather than to actual do the search
-Structure process tradeoff = change representation
-Represnation and process = KEY
-Commitment to ceratin representation can affect how mind works
2) Correlational neural methods = brain areas that are active at the same time
3) Causal neural methods = TMS (), can create artifical brain lesions
4) Computer modeling = connections modeling
-dependant variable = thing that we are measuring
-independant variable - thing that we are manipulating
examples
reaction time - dependant
type of word presented to participant - independant
error rate/accuract - dependant
length of time stimulus is presented on screen - independant
-priming paradigm
-priming the person with something that is related to the actual stimlulus, and
then showing that person the stimulus after, the person is now primed to the stumulus
because of the thing that was shown to them before that was related to the stimulus
stimulus - anything on the screen, anything person is listening to, looking at
target - the thing that the person is making a response to
trial - something that is repeated over and over again
intertrial interval - time between one trial and the next
interstimulus interval/stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) - time between onset off
one stimulus and the onset of the next
(if it has an SOA of less than 200ms, not enough for person to think about
the prime, has to be at least 200ms for person to start thinking about it and make
relationships in their head)
block - a set of trials that happen together
blocked vs random presentation - in blocked, give person all the words in one category
and then all the words in the other category. In random, you give them random
words in the first block, and then random words again in the second block, not
seperated into categories
counterbalancing - split it up so that half our participants get one treatment, and the oth-
er half get the other treatment
between vs within participant design - within participants get every level of the words,
between partipicants is where certain participants get one level of words, and