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Lecture 5

PSYB64H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Cholinergic, Prescription Drug, Phenylketonuria

Course Code
Janelle Leboutillier

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B64 Week 05 Lecture Notes
Review of pages 139 to 150. You are required to know this content. We will
conduct a tutorial for interested students on this information for the first
hour of lecture. We will not be taping this tutorial but slides used will be
posted. Any questions can be discussed at office hours if you miss the
Not responsible for content on Pages 151 to 163 in Chapter 5 unless
specifically mentioned in lecture
You are responsible for content on Pages 164 to 172
Now a little about Psychopharmacology
oIdentifying Neurochemicals
Types of neurotransmitters
oDrug actions at the synapse
Agonists & antagonists
Neurotransmitter production, storage & release
oBasic principles of drug effects
oNOTE: Lecture content is from Chapter 4. You are only responsible
for the content covered in these lecture slides
But first, what is a neurochemical?
o3 General Categories
Neurotransmitters: a chemical messenger that communicates
across a synapse
Neuromodulators: a chemical messenger that communicates
with target cells more distant than the synapse by diffusing
away from the point of release
Neurohormone: a chemical messenger that communicates
with target cells at great distance, often by traveling through
the circulation
Identifying Neurochemicals
oIdentifying Neurochemicals
Must be synthesized in the presynaptic cell
The substance is released in response to presynaptic
The substance interacts with specific receptors on a
postsynaptic cell
oTypes of Neurochemicals (3)
Small molecule transmitters – meet all or most of criteria
and play a vital role in neurotransmission
Eg: Acetylcholine (Ach)
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Neuropeptides – at least 40 act as neurotransmitters,
neuromodulators, and neurohormones
Manufactured in cell body and must be transported
Bigger than small molecule transmitters
Metabotropic often involves G proteins
oEg: Substance P deals with pain and pain signals
Gaseous neurotransmitters – some gases transfer
information from one cell to another
Short lived, recently found
oEg: NO (nitrous oxide)
Characteristics of Selected Neurochemicals
oHC = hippocampus
oAcetylcholine (Ach)
Found in the neuromuscular junction
Basal forebrain projections to HC and amygdala, the septum
the brainstem
Involved with movement, learning and memory
found in substantia nigra and basal ganglia
Ventral tegmentum projections to HC, amygdala, nucleus
Involved with movement, reinforcement and planning
What is a ‘Drug’?
oA very vague term
oAll ingested substances alter bodily function
o‘Drug’ is reserved for things that have pronounced effects when
ingested in small quantities
Examples of Commonly Used Drugs and Their Effects
Caffeine blocks on the postsynaptic side
GABA is the most commonly found inhibitory neurtransmitter
in the CNS
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Drug Actions at the Synapse
oAgonists enhance the activity of a neurochemical
oAntagonists reduce the activity of a neurochemical
Pharmacologists often limit the use of these terms to chemicals
that act at receptor sites, but the broader use of the terms
includes chemicals that influence activity in additional ways
such as affecting the amount of neurochemical that is released
Any chemicals, not just at the synaptic level, that influences the
way neurochemicals are activated or inhibited
Think back
oHow could a drug affect presynaptic activities?
Affecting packaging of neurotransmitters
Affect the docking of neurotransmitters
oWhat could the drug do to increase/decrease NT activity?
Exocytosis Results in the Release of Neurotransmitters
Drug Actions at the Synapse (Pre)
oNeurotransmitter Production
Manipulating the synthesis of a neurotransmitter will affect the
amount available for release
Substances that promote increased production will act as
agonists (make more available), whereas substances that
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