The behaviour of an organism is separated into 3 major categories: 1. Behaviours produced by prewired neural connections/ reflex arc. Instincts: stereotyped behaviour elicited by particular environmental stimuli. Mostly involved with mating or parenting behaviour: 3. Learning/ learned behaviour: relatively permanent change in behaviour/ capacity of behaviour due to experience. Organisms flexible means to respond to environment. Behavioural changes that result from experience = learned . Associative learning: a formation of a connection between 2 elements/event. Nonassociative learning: learning that involves changes in magnitude of responses to stimuli rather than formation of connections. Processes include: habituation: reduction of response to repeated, harmless, unchanging stimulus, e. g. Not noticing cars/ trucks driving by whilst studying: sensitization: exposure to a strong stimulus increases response to other environmental stimuli, e. g. Following hearing a loud noise in a silent room=> exaggerated response to any movement, light or noise.