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Lecture 11

PSYB65H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 11: Parietal Lobe, Long-Term Memory, Temporal Lobe

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Ted Petit

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Lecture 11:
Frontal lobe damage (mostly the pre-frontal cortex):
- frontal lobe lobotomy will cause massive frontal lobe syndrome because behaviour differences are
relative to the amount of area
- important for motor functions, planning motor movement, and being aware of what consequences
occur due to actions
- Gall believed that pre-frontal area is most important for intellectual functioning size of forehead
meant how smart you were
gall through phrenology (feeling skull) would determine where certain behaviours are located
based on bumps on skull
- first person to test theory was Jacobson took some monkeys and removed the pre-frontal area
(anterior portion of frontal lobe) and tested them
found that they had a problem in delayed response abilities tested them in WGTA (Wisconsin
General Testing Apparatus), which theres a table and the monkey sits on one side and the
experimenter on the other, and have two cups with different items inside
If the monkey could see the solution to the problem, they could perform well, but if there was a
delay between seeing the solution and performing the test, they did not perform well
- Also found that if a monkey in a cage with banana in front of a cage, just beyond their reach, the
monkey will look to see if he can find a stick to pull the banana into the cage
animals with prefrontal damage would look for object, but by the time they found it, they had
forgotten about the banana delay between seeing the problem and seeing the solution to the
- Jacobson believed that is was a problem with short term (immediate) memory capacity
- when he tested them in diff conditions, like in the dark or gave them a tranquilizer, the animals
could perform the task
thus wasn’t memory, but perhaps some emotional problem like distractibility
- monkeys also had problems in alternation (test that we use in animals/humans, where one set of
responses is correct, and then another set is correct first the red is correct, then blue is correct)
--> once they learned the first set of responses they could not change, lacked plasticity
- Jacobson went to a neurology conference and talked about specific monkey that did not react well
to being tested before the surgery (got upset/neurotic and throw temper tantrums, eventually even
before they put her in the WGTA)
after the frontal lobotomy, she was much more calm and would be fine about performing the
- Moniz was at the conference and wondered what it would be like to do it on humans that had
psychiatric problems
he went back to his psychiatric hospital and performed pre-frontal lobotomys (removed
prefrontal area)
wrote a report on 20 patients and reported that all had survived, 7 of them had recovered and
another 7 had improved
best results were with depressed patients
started whole wave of treating psychiatric patients by removing their frontal lobe
moniz stopped performing in 1944 because one of his patients shot him and paralyzed him
-Freeman and Watts brought technique to north America; operated on 3500 patients
overall, performed about 40 000 prefrontal lobotomies in the US alone
- individuals commonly got epilepsy (18%) because of scar tissue formation
- continued until the 1950s, which is when we got drug therapies for psychiatric patients
People with pre-frontal damage:
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