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Lecture

PSYB65H3 Lecture Notes - Thalamus, Nicotine, Generalized Anxiety Disorder


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB65H3
Professor
Ted Petit

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1. Which theorist suggested that emotional states occur innately in children and
thus are not learned?
a) Charles Darwin
b) D.O Hebb
c) Mr. Dress-up
d) Friedrich Goltz
e) Gregor Mendel
Answer: A
2. Researcher Ekman suggested that for an emotional state to be considered as
basic it must exhibit seven elements. Which one of the following was not
considered a basic element?
a) distinctive physiological state
b) distinctive eliciting stimuli
c) almost instantaneous onset of the facial expression and physiological state,
which last for only a brief duration
d) automatic reaction regarding what the emotion entails
e) neither c or d
Answer: D
3. Ohman and Mineka suggest that certain phobias (i.e. snakes) are common
cross-culturally because…
a) children develop these fears through similar cultural practices, stories and
adult reactions.
b) humans contain evolved mechanisms to produce fear for dangerous stimuli
that were important in evolutionary history.
c) all humans are born with an archetype that unconsciously reacts to certain
stimuli.
d) none of these are correct.
Answer: B
4. Which of the following is true regarding the James Lange Theory of emotion?
a) Conscious experiences of emotional states are driven physiological
responses.
b) Physiological responses of emotional states are driven by conscious
experiences.
c) Conscious experience and physiological responses occur simultaneously in
reaction to stimuli, causing an emotional state.
d) It is impossible to differentiate between whether the cognitive or physiological
response occurs first in an emotional state.
Answer: A
5. The Cannon Bard theory suggested that cognitive aspects of affect could be
experienced even when individuals could not sense any physiological changes.
They based this conclusion on studies that involved…
a) patients that were given anaesthetics were still able to sense feelings although
their autonomic nervous system was numbed.

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b) injecting adrenaline into participants, and this did not increase their emotional
responses to stimuli.
c) rats that were enveloped in ice water (i.e. they were numb) still showed a
normal fear response.
d) reports that humans with spinal chord transections experienced no change in
their ability to sense feelings.
Answer: D
6. In a study by Dutton and Aron (1974), they had a young woman introduce
herself to participants either when they were on a high, swinging suspension
bridge (high arousal) or when they were on a low, stable bridge (low arousal).
Participants later had to rate the attractiveness of the young woman. The results
of this study were consistent with the Schacter-Singer theory. Given this
information, which of the following statements is true?
a) Participants in the high arousal condition rated the young woman as
significantly less attractive than did the individuals who were in the low arousal
condition.
b) Participants in the high arousal condition rated the young woman as
significantly more attractive than did the individuals who were in the low arousal
condition.
c) Only the participants who had a fear of heights in the high arousal condition
rated the woman as significantly more attractive.
d) Participants in the high arousal condition rated the young woman as more
attractive than did the individuals in the low arousal condition, but the difference
was not significant.
Answer: B
7. What are somatic markers?
a) The brain region in which emotional memories are stored.
b) An innate “emotional regulator” in humans.
c) The means by which out brain evaluates novel situations on the basis of
previous experience.
d) The gyri in the temporal lobe that project emotional responses when
stimulated.
Answer: C
8. Which of the following is not an attribute of the Magda Arnold’s Appraisal
Theory?
a) The theory explains the relationship between the physiological cognitive
aspects of emotional states.
b) The theory explains how emotions are generated.
c) The theory has an emphasis on the cognitive (i.e. deliberate and conscious)
component.
d) The theory provides a framework for understanding why emotional states
exist.
Answer: C

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9. Maxine tells her roommate, Crystal that she “just loves the weather they’ve
been having”. Crystal is confused because it has been miserable outside all
week. To determine whether or not Maxine is being sarcastic, Crystal must
examine the ______ of her roommate’s speech.
120
a) semantic enunciation
b) prosody
c) sodomy
d) sarcasm
e) tone
Answer: B
10. Individuals with damage to the ______ exhibit profound difficulties in
producing prosodic speech.
a) frontal lobe
b) temporal lobe
c) basal ganglia
d) left hemisphere
e) right hemisphere
Answer: E
11. Researchers use chimeric faces in order to study…
a) the perception of the emotional tone of visual stimuli.
b) the left visual field’s representation of emotional stimuli.
c) the role of the nuclei that regulate the autonomic nervous system.
d) a culture’s representation of emotional faces.
e) attractiveness rating within a culture.
Answer: A
12. Which of the following structures is most important for feelings of fear and
fear responses?
a) hippocampus
b) nucleus accumbens
c) amygdala
d) hypothalamus
e) septum
Answer: C
13. People who display deficits in varying their pitch and expression during
speech because of damage to their right hemisphere are said to have…
a) audio expression deficit
b) aprosodia
c) prosodonia
d) Broca’s aphasia
e) Wernicke’s aphasia
Answer: B
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