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Lecture 4

Lecture 4.docx


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB65H3
Professor
Ted Petit
Lecture
4

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Membranes of the neurons have channels
Channels open when stimulated
High concentration of sodium ions on the outside of the neuron
Goes from high density to low density = will travel from the outside to the inside
Makes the inside of the cell more positive
Life cycle of a transmitter substance:
Different steps
Possible places where we can interfere with the systems
1. Synthesis
The NT has to be made
If you want to make more dopamine, for example, you could increase synthesis
If you want to slow it down: find an enzyme that could slow it down
2. Storage
NT has to be stored or packaged inside the vesicle
3. Release
Whenever AP comes along, the vesicle merges with the presynaptic membrane and the NT
is released into the synaptic cleft
4. Receptor
NT Interacting with the Receptor
5. Inactivation - breaking it down and destroying it
6. Reuptake - taking it into the presynaptic cell. Reabsorbing it
Inactivation by breakdown or reuptake
Parkinson's
Need to increase the functional activity of dopamine
Schizophrenia
Need to decrease the functional activity of dopamine
Parkinson's
(We need to increase functional
activity)
Schizophrenia
(We need to decrease the
functional activity)
Synthesis
Increase
Decrease
Packaging
-------
Decrease
Release
Increase
Decrease
Receptor Activation
Increase
Decrease
Inactivation
(breakdown)
Decrease
Increase

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How can the NTs be interfered with to better the diseases?
People right now are working with these
They are trying
Inactivation:
This is a double negative
NTs would continue to activate receptor until gone
There needs to be some form of spatial sequence (i.e. a pause and then another activation of the
receptors)
We have to get rid of the NT - either by breaking it down or reuptake
If we did not do this: TOO MUCH ACTIVATION OF SYSTEM
More activity: We need to decrease inactivation so it can stay longer
To decrease activity: We need to increase inactivation
Classic Neurotransmitters:
I. Monoamines (Biogenic Amines) - Inactivation by reuptake
a. Catecholamines
1. Dopamine (DA)
2. Norepinephrine (NE) - Adrenaline, Noradrenaline (NA)
Synthesis: Tyrosine - DOPA -- DA -- NE
Some neurons will us DA as a NT, some will just use it to synthesize NE
DA would as such function as a precursor
DOPA is also a precursor: Increasing it will increase the amount of DA that can be synthesized (L-
DOPA specifically. MJF would take this)
b. Serotonin (5HT)
Synthesis: Tryptophan - 5OHT - 5HT
(5-Hydroxytryptomine)
I. Acetylcholine - Inactivation by breakdown
Synthesis: Acetyl Coa + Choline - -- Ach
Ach is the NT used at the NMJ
Blockers in poison darts will inhibit this
Acetyl cholinesterase will break it down
(ACE)
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