PSYB65-Lecture 3 Notes

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4 Nov 2010
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Lecture 3
x Brain has very high metabolic rate and very high metabolic
requirements
x Brain is the first thing that will be damaged because of a blockage
of blood flow
Types of Blood Supply Problems
1. A blockage of blood flow
o 1. Cerebral vascular accident (CVA)
Aka stroke
Severe interruption of blood supply to the brain, this
interruption of blood supply results in ischemia
x Ischemia: Problem in blood supply, not enough
blood, also means disruption of oxygen, this then
produces dying/dead tissue called infarct
x Cva-ischemia-infarct (3 key terms)
o 2. Encephalomalacia
Lack of blood supply (very slow i.e. plaque, cholesterol
in arteries)
Brain begins to get damaged because of a very slow
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the brain tissue (some death, but tissue is not
completely dead)
o 3. Transient Ischemic attack (TIA)
Temporary=transient
Eschemic=lack of oxygen/blood flow
Attack=sudden and goes away
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enough oxygen/blood in brain
Common in severe headaches/migraines, will get a
blurring of vision
2 phases: extreme pain and then constriction
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Do not cause brain damage
o What causes these?
3 major events
Thrombosis
x Blockage formed locally
Embolism
x Blockage that breaks off from something else i.e.
if have plaque builds up and breaks off and goes
somewhere else, if get in brain, will have a stroke
x Started somewhere else in the body while
thrombosis is local
Atherosclerosis
x General clogging of the arteries
x Happens in the elderly
x Slow reduction in blood supply
x Hardening of the arteries
2. Blood vessels burst (Cerebral Hemorrhage)
x Called a cerebral hemorrhage (if inside the brain)
o Massive bleeding into the brain itself
o can be life threatening
o Most often associated with high blood pressure (i.e. if
pumping tire, bursts because of too much pressure)
This is why it is critical that blood pressure be
controlled esp. as one gets older
3. Subdural Hematoma
x Bleeding into the space between skull and brain itself
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x Bleeding underneath the dura
x NOT bleeding inside the brain itself
o If bleeding inside brain itself, it kills the tissue, but if
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itself directly or if caught on time
Puts pressure on the brain because of the blood
outside of it
If caught on time, pressure can be relieved and the
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If puts pressure on brain stem, will cause death
4. Angioma
x Collection or a mass of enlarged, abnormal blood vessels
x Born with them, blood vessels in one place tangled up, may put
blood in the wrong direction.
o Inheritingly weak, may burst easily
o If catch them on time, can surgically correct the area
5. Anuerism
x Vascular dilation
x Expanded blood vessels caused by localized problems in elasticity
o Begins to bulge out and may pop
o No symptoms
o If detect it early, can do surgery
Closed Head Injuries
x Blow to the head that causes injury to the brain but does not
open up the head itself
x Often because of sports or car accident
x Damage to the front portion of the brain and temporal lobe, most
common type of damage
o i.e. smash head on an object
x contrecoup effect
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