PSYB65-Lecture 4 Notes

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4 Nov 2010
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Lecture 4
x Neurons
o Info comes into the dendrites
o Dendrites get excited and causes iron channels to open up
and sodium has a positive charge and causes area to
become more positive, reaches threshold, causes the ion
channels to open in the area and sodium pours in and makes
it very positive and shoots up and comes down (the neuron
has fired) and has had an action potential
Positive charge across the membrane caused by
sodium
o Info goes along the axon until goes to the dendrite of the
next cell
x Parkinsons: too little adopamine
o Most effective way to treat is to increase the level of
synthesis (by taking dopa)
x Schizophrenia: over excited adopamine system
x Steps in a synaptic transmission in a generalized synapse: Life
cycle of synapse
o 1. Synthesis
o 2. Storage
Has to be packaged in order to be utilized because if
not, chemicals will break it down
o 3. Release
When there is an action potential (most of the time)
o 4. Interact with post-synaptic receptor
Places where we can go and play around to find cure
for brain disease
Stimulates post-synaptic receptor so that channels will
open up
o 5. Inactivation/break down/degradation
o 6. Reuptake
Reabsorbs
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x Can either decrease/increase the functional activity of a system
o Can take each step in the life cycle of synapse to either
decrease/increase activity of a system
x Increase
o 1. Synthesis
Increase. Give chemicals that used to make the
synthesis.
o 2. Packaging
Increase. May not have drugs to do that, so leave blank
o 3. Release
Increase
o 4. Receptor Activation
Mimicor-chemicals that can mimic the activity of a
neurotransmitter. Look very much like the transmitter
itself. Go in and activate the receptor (because looks
similar enough). For drugs, often looking for mimicors
for treatment.
Put in a mimicor
o 5. Inactivation
Decrease (because you want to decrease the break
down)
x Decrease
o 1. Synthesis
Decrease
o 2. Packaging
Decrease, then the ones with no packaging will be
destroyed
o 3. Release
Decrease
o 4. Receptor Activation
Blocker-Look like the transmitter enough to sit on the
receptor. Will activate the receptor, but a blocker fits
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]v(oÇµ}v[]ÀZ}v
blocks the channel
Put in a blocker
o 5. Inactivation
Increase inactivation (so that transmitters get
destroyed, slowing down the activity of the system)
x Classic Neurotransmitters *memorize!!!
o 1. Monoamines (Biogenic amines)- all inactivated through
reuptake
Z}ou]v[
x Dopamine (DA)
x Norepinephrine (NE) epinephrine=adrenaline,
can be called noradrenalin (NA)
o Synthesized by Tyrosine->Dopa->DA->NE
Seratonin (5HT)
x Tryptophan->5OHT->5HT
o 2. Acetylcholine (ACL)
Choline+AcetylCoA=ACL
Broken down by ACHE
Primary method of inactivation by being broken down
by ACHE
x Epilepsy
o Repetitive discharge of a hyper excitable
aggregate/collection of neurons
o Results from some type of damage or genetic disorder,
usually brain damage
Collection of neurons start doing the same thing at the
u]u]XXooÇ]vP^'}iÇP}_XdZvµ}v
in unison. Repetitively firing in synchrony
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