PSYB65-Lecture 6 Notes

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4 Nov 2010
School
Department
Course
Professor
Lecture 6
x Schizophrenia
o Hallucinations and delusions
Especially if they hear voices (most of the time hear
voices, instead of seeing a vision)
Hallucinations
x When hear ppl talking to you
Delusions
x Think ppl are plotting against them
o Thought it was one gene for schizophrenia, but that is not
the case
There are about 5 genes that are involved
Not that one gene codes for schizophrenia
x Mania and depression are overlapping diseases
o Age of onset prior to age of 30
So if make it to 30 and not have any symptoms,
probably safe
o Poor performance on frontal lobe tasks/function
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of the tranquilizers/medication that they have been on
for a long time
o Poor performance on verbal and nonverbal memory
o Most have enlarged ventricles and lighter brains
May be because they have been on major tranquilizers
for many years
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themselves
o Genetics:
1% of the population have/will develop schizophrenia
10-15% of schizophrenic patients, parents/ children
or siblings are schizophrenic
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Twins
x Dizygotic (fraternal twins)
o Ratio is 10-15%
o If one has, the next one has 10-15% chance
of developing
x Monozygotic-identical
o Prevalence 40-75%
o Very clear that this is a genetic disorder
x BUT not 100%...which means that the
environment has some effect as well
o But genetic predisposition is there
o One study:
12 cases of monozygotic twins
Twins had to have been separated in the 1st year of
life
One of the twins has to be schizophrenic
x Had to go out and find the other twin
9/12 were also schizophrenic
x NOT PURELY GENETIC, but the predominant
factor is genetic
x Psychopharmacological basis of schizophrenia
o If have cold and take an antihistamine
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o Found that the most effective drugs were all dopamine
antagonists
The ones that were most used were the
phenothiazines
Chlorpromazine
x Most common and effective tool for
schizophrenia
x Block the receptor sites for
biogenicamines/monoamines: (dopamine,
serotonin, noropereforin)
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o (IIHFWLYHQHVVRIWKHGUXJVZHUHVHOHFWLYH«GRSDPLQH
antagonists were the most effective
Now realize that the effective way is to block
dopamine receptors, not serotonin or neuropereforin
o If use dopamanephtic stimulants (i.e. extoce, cocaine)
As soon as give this to them, their schizophrenic
symptoms will appear and get worse
Ppl who take emphedomine continuously for 24 hours
(high levels)
x Show schizo symptoms that a psychiatrist
cannot tell them from real schizophrenics
o Became clear that an overstimulation of dopaminergic
systems, the patient gets worse or even normal ppl act like
schizophrenics
o Take dopamine levels from brains of dead schizophrenics,
their dopamine levels were normal
But the 6 times the number of dopamine receptors
x Specifically the d-4 receptor
Seems that some certain people have more dopamine
receptors
o Some gene is coding for dopamine receptors
Something is wrong with the gene that makes it to be
overexpressed and makes too many dopamine
receptors
o Problem:
With schizophrenics, have to be careful with blocking
too many dopamine receptors
x Or else can end up with Parkinson like
symptoms
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them fuzzy
o Frontal lobotomy
Cut out frontal lobe
x Affective disorders
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