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Lecture 11

PSYB65H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 11: Caudate Nucleus, Somatosensory System, Globus PallidusPremium

7 pages60 viewsFall 2015

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB65H3
Professor
Zachariah Campbell
Lecture
11

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Week 12 Lecture #11: Wednesday November 25, 2015
Final Exam
- cumulative, but just on general concepts
- straight forward, no questions on details, stuff that wasn’t asked before during MT
- don’t have to read textbook aside from chap 10, 15, 16
- will only be tested on what’s mentioned or talked about in the lectures
- sound transduced in neurosignals via the basilar membrane
- not gonna to be asked about inner and outer cilia
- each part of the membrane has a certain frequency which they responds to
- no question will be asked about which frequency transduced at which part
Auditory Receptors
• Transduction of sound waves into neural
activity takes place in the hair cells
• Movement of the basilar membrane stimulates the hair cells via bending and shearing
action.
- hair cells alters output of sound waves to nervous system
- has the beginning stimulation of what we perceive as sound
• Movement of cilia on hair cells changes membrane potential and alters neurotransmitter
release.
- understand that the info is transduced and in an ionotropic fashion
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Pathways to the Auditory Cortex
• Inner hair cells synapse onto bipolar cells that form the auditory nerve (part of the
8th cranial nerve)
- bipolar cell: why is it bipolar --> has an interesting shape
- 8th cranial nerve helps w/ balance
• These axons synapse in the cochlear nucleus
- focus on cochlear nucleus for final
- axons synapse from brainstem up to cochlear nucleus
• Bilateral projections onward include hindbrain, midbrain, and thalamic structures before
reaching auditory cortex
Auditory Cortex
• Lateralization
Process whereby functions become localized primarily on one side of the brain
- or one hemisphere
Analysis of speech takes place largely in the left hemisphere
- language and symbols
- massive stroke in this area, difficulty w/ lang
- depending on part, difficulty w/ expressing or perceiving lang
Analysis of musical sounds takes place largely in the right hemisphere
- experience, perception and understanding of music
- stroke: no difficulty w/ lang but problem w/ music
Tonotopic Organization
- info from the externa world is preserved at the level of the basal membrane all the way
the different connections and the brain stem, thalamus and etc., up until the cortex
- A1 (primary auditory cortex) is where we have the cortical input
- also have A2, which is secondary
- organization that is linear and easy to understand
Localizing Language in the Brain
• Broca’s area
- located in the frontal lobe
Anterior speech area in the left hemisphere that functions with the motor cortex
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