detailed chapter 11 notes

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14 Dec 2010
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Lecture NotesLecture 11: Brain Damage and Language: The Aphasias1
3 BASIC THINGS THAT CAN HAPPEN WITH LANGUAGE
1. Input and deciphered
2. Language is integrated and computed
3. Language is outputted or expressed.
How Language works
Language comes in to the primary receptive area in the temporal lobe, then it is sent to the
Wernicke's area behind it to be decoded and understood, then it is sent to the Broca's area for
language output.
APHASIAS
Language problems are usually referred to as aphasias.
Receptive Aphasias (Receiving language)
Pure Word Deafness
It is problems in relating incoming sounds into representations which allow the understanding
of discourse. (They can hear sounds but cannot comprehend language)
Involves some sor t of stroke in the dorsal por tion of temporal lobe near the pr imary receptive
area for audition.
What they can / cannot do:
They have a normal ability to read / write and speak.
They cannot repeat what is said, and cannot obey verbal commands.
Integrative Aphasias (Understanding language)
Involves problems in selecting and arranging meaning units and their eventual conversion into
comprehensible coherent speech.
Wernicke's Aphasia (Jargon Aphasia)
These patients make unintelligible statements. They will of ten chatter for a long period of time
without making any sense at all.
However, the speech is not random, it sounds like language, and it sounds like it makes sense.
The music of language is intact (the raising of the tone in the beginning of the speech and
change of tone throughout the speech)
Example:what's this? (keys)”, Patient:Indication in measurement of apparatus, intimating the
cost of apparatus in various forms
What they can / cannot do:
Cannot name an object very well. Sometimes they sound similar / related.
They use utensils objects appropriately. They DO know what the objects are.
They respond to commands poorly / they can not repeat. In milder cases, they can repeat if
it's very simple and rehearsed often.
They do fine in IQ tests.
Singing is intact.
They can't comprehend written material. They can read out loud.
They can write, but write the same nonsense as they speak.
Nominal Aphasia (Anomia)
Diff iculties / inabilities to name objects.
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Document Summary

3 basic things that can happen with language: input and deciphered, language is integrated and computed, language is outputted or expressed. How language works: language comes in to the primary receptive area in the temporal lobe, then it is sent to the. Wernicke"s area behind it to be decoded and understood, then it is sent to the broca"s area for language output. Aphasias: language problems are usually referred to as aphasias. It is problems in relating incoming sounds into representations which allow the understanding of discourse. (they can hear sounds but cannot comprehend language) Involves some sort of stroke in the dorsal portion of temporal lobe near the primary receptive area for audition: what they can / cannot do: they have a normal ability to read / write and speak. they cannot repeat what is said, and cannot obey verbal commands. Involves problems in selecting and arranging meaning units and their eventual conversion into comprehensible coherent speech.

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