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Lecture 7

Lecture 7 to 11

Course Code
Ted Petit

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- Neuropsychology deal w/ individuals that self-induce & taking it usually for fun Addiction
- Being in diff categories:
1. Prescription drugs by doctors
2. Over-the-counter drugs getting it in pharmacy w/out doctors note
3. Social drugs e.g. nicotine, alcohol, caffeine
4. Drugs that are not produce commercially, or if produced commercially it is not for the
use psycho-active effect (e.g. airplane glue)
- Talking about drugs in terms of addicting qualities, tolerance, withdrawal, and mechanism it
works through
- it’s when taken repeatedly the same amount of drug give decrease behaviour effect
almost all drugs have this quality but not all of them & all vary in the level of tolerance
- Stimulant look at synapse drug cause excess amount of transmitter to released more
transmitters are hitting/bombarding the receptors sites in the post-synaptic neuron
5. As you get hyperactivity in post-synaptic cell through its own feedback system get
a plastic response by decrease either the # or sensitivity of reports more bombarded
receptors hitting post-synaptic = fewer # or sensitivity of receptors in post-synaptic
neuron for compensating over-activation
6. Thus, don’t get the strong behavioural effect for the same amount of drug
- Depressant this slows down functional activity decrease activity in post-synaptic so
through its own feedback system try to compensate for under-activity of it by increasing # or
sensitivity of receptors of post-synaptic cells
7. Don’t get the same behavioural effect for the same amount
- For most drugs the longer time period on them (as well as dosage) it’s harder to get them out
of it because of these symptoms experience by patient especially for depressant
8. E.g. Alcohol -> don’t take it off quickly (cold turkey) in hospital put them on valium
for while
- Stimulant loot at tolerance system brain has adjust so now the post-synaptic neuron has
few in # or sensitivity receptors now take the drug away pre-synaptic goes back to normal
stimulation due to adjustment of post-synaptic neurons is under stimulated as result
depressed - need more time for system to adjust itself back
9. Normal activity = decrease activity in posy-synaptic cell opposite reaction to what
drug does very depressed eventually goes back to normal after time
10. Symptoms include tiredness, depression, lethargic not life-threatening

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- Depressant look at tolerance system brain adjust so the post-synaptic cells have Increase #
or sensitivity of receptors normal activation of pre-synaptic cell increase (normal)
transmitters being released increase stimulation of post-synaptic cell
11. Again opposite effect of drugs period of hyper-stimulation shaking, seizures
(depending of severity ) which could lead to death
12. This is why don’t take directly off depressant w/out some substitution depressant
could maybe lead to death otherwise
- Implies that person want to have that drugs its behaviour or physical dependence on the
drug diff types of addiction: psychological & physical addiction
- Psychological addiction behaviour dependent on drugs hard to define it
- Physical addiction- means that there is physical (psychophysical included) symptoms clear
such as in terms of blood pressure, shaking etc, could be measured
- In terms of addiction General rule: more rapid the effect of the drug = more addicting it is
13. e.g. cocaine from coca plant & people harvest Y make usually tea out of it (of leafs)
gives sling increase in activity level similar to effect of caffeine in morning
14. for exportation extract cocaine out of leaf increase in concentration have mild
addicting quality
15. high concentration as crack cocaine get rapid effect (instant rush) very addictive
- list mild to strong all of these cause shift to arousal state in cortical increase activity in
cortical EEG “inhibit sleep”
- mildest - found commonly in tea & coffee diff levels of it in them - usually ½ of it in the tea
than coffee
- tolerance some do develop but very little
- withdrawal opposite reaction : headache, constipation/ irregularity in digestive system
16. in order to have this effect you must have to be on it for very high dose (6-8 cups a
- toxicity in terms of death not very toxic estimate take 70- 100 cups of coffee at one time
- mechanism ( how does it work) it inhibit breakdown of cyclic AMP it causes increase of
cyclic AMP amount leads to increase glucose production which causes heighten (increase)
cellular activity
- found in tobacco leaves

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- Mechanism it mimics Acetyl Cyctocholine at nicotinic receptors (one type of cholinergic
system) thereby, stimulating post-synaptic receptors
17. Works through cholinergic system
18. Also cause release of adrenaline which causes increase in both heart rate & blood
- Tolerance some does develop but not that great most sticks to less than 1 pack a day
- Withdrawal depression (a period),crave drug (its true for all drug)
- Toxicity not very high but it can be a problems for infant
19. Infant could die from eating a cigar ( it has happen a problem)
- From coca levels mild stimulant in this form people drink it like tea/ coffee
- Leaf themselves contain 2% cocaine by extraction
- Causes increase heart rate & respiration
- Toxicity generally not toxic unless using it intravenously (IV) if through IV in high dose it
can kill & people have died from it
20. Because through IV it works directly on heart muscles stop heart from beating
- Mechanism works by preventing the reuptake of Norepinephrine - mean it sit longer in
synaptic cleft & stimulating post- synaptic cell for longer period of time
21. Stimulate reward system in hypothalamus affect the addictive quality
22. Other research indicate there are other effect on other monoamines but it primary
effect on Norepinephrine
- Tolerance some doe develop but not too great
- Withdrawal physical (tired, lethargic) & emotional ( sadness) depression (period) but not
life threatening (goes for all stimulant)
- Addicting depend upon mechanism of concentration administration e.g. cocoa leafs vs.
Cocaine vs. Cocaine IV vs. Cocaine crack
23. Faster (heighten) rush/ effect = increase addictive quality of drug
- Similar to cocaine - a stronger version of it & relatively new drugs (1932) compare to other
- Primary effect : decrease fatigues ( increase alertness), research shown that person’s
performance decrease w/ fatigue this increase performance by decreasing performance
24. Increase activity in Medial Forebrain Bundle (reward system) in hypothalamus gives
euphoric effect
- Mechanism identical to that of cocaine causes euphoric effect: feeling great & top of the
- Two Primary uses:
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